Turtle Bunbury

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Michael O'Halloran’s wife Mary McDonnell is believed to have been connected to one of the two lines of the Antrim clan of McDonnells who were living in Clare at this time. Both were Church of Ireland and both regarded themselves as reasonably close kinsmen of the Antrim branch. The quest is somewhat complicated by the variations of the McDonnell name and, in the course of the hunt, the family name has also been written as M'Donnell, MacDonnell, McDonald, M'Donald and MacDonald.[i]

On 15 April 1828, a notice appeared in the Belfast Newsletter about a brig called John Echlin sailing for Jamaica. Interested parties were to apply to George S and Richard Halloran in Belfast. The ship was commanded by Lieutenant Thomas W. McDonnell, RN. (1788-1864), a remarkable nautical figure of that age who was, among other things, sometime British Resident for the Hokianga District, New Zealand. He may well have been a brother or nephew of Mary O’Halloran (nee McDonnell).



Thomas McDonnell’s origin is unknown although there is at least one claim that he was a younger son of the Earl of Antrim.[ii] It is not clear which Earl of Antrim he is supposed to have been a son of; there is no mention of him in Burke’s Peerage or, specifically, in John Lodge’s Peerage of 1789.[iii] If such a claim was true, his father was presumably the 5th or the 6th Earl as the 4th died in 1721. Alexander McDonnell, 5th Earl Antrim, was born in 1713 and was onto his third wife by the time of Thomas’s alleged birth in 1788. The 5th Earl was reputedly only survived by his son, the 6th Earl, and two daughters, but it is possible he sired an illegitimate son.

Randal McDonnell, 6th Earl Antrim, was born in 1749 and married in 1774 to the Hon. Letitia Morres, eldest daughter of the 1st Viscount Mountmorres and a widow of Arthur Trevor, only son of Arthur, Viscount Dugannon. They had three daughters before Letitia’s death in 1801 – the twins Catherine (later Countess of Antrim) and Letitia, born in 1775 (who died in 1797), and Charlotte (also later Countess of Antrim), born in 1779. There is no record of any son although if Thomas was born in 1788, he may have been illegitimate. It is to be noted that in 1785 the 6th Earl secured a new patent, dated 19 June, by which, because he had no male heirs, he was created Viscount Dunluce and Earl of Antrim, ‘with remainder to his daughters primogeniturely and their male issue.’

Moreover, on 18 August 1789, he was advanced to the Marquessate of Antrim, but without any special reversionary grant. There is a suggestion that he was ‘addicted to Drinking’.[iv] When he died in 1791, all his honours ceased except the patent of 1785, which devolved accordingly on his eldest daughter Catherine, Countess of Antrim. Her husband Sir Harry Vane Tempest was a very wealthy man and a large-scale entrepreneur who was developing coal mining on his estates in Durham. It is assumed he was responsible for starting up the large-scale quarrying on his wife's county Antrim estates. Sir Harry died in 1812 (circa), leaving a daughter by Lady Antrim, who inherited all his property and [check] money. At length, the 6th Earls grandson Hugh Seymour succeeded as Earl.



It’s a long shot but we should leave room for Thomas McDonnell to have been a brother or son of Edmund McDonnell (nee Phelps) who was himself the son of an auctioneer father from Plymouth and a milliner mother.

Hector McDonnell writes: ‘In his youth, circa 1805, Phelps, a very talented musician, bettered himself by being a chorister in Birmingham and then founding its music school. He was then given £2000 pounds to get out of the country by a gent whose daughter had fallen in love with him. He spent this money on buying a shipload of musical instruments (pianos organs etc) which he took to the recently acquired colony of British Guiana and made a handsome profit out of them. He also married a native woman and had a son, who later came to visit him at Glenarm ... he then returned to be a musical secretary for an English peer, who fancied himself as a composer, and while employed by him met Lady Antrim, in London, and married her within months. He then made her go back to Glenarm and put his efforts into making the place run financially successfully, which would of course have included looking after the quarries.’

In 1813 the lowly Edmund caused a considerable rumpus when he became the second husband of Catherine, Countess of Antrim, after which he took on the surname of McDonnell (by royal sign manual, 27 June 1817) and settled in Glenarm. An article in the Northern Whig from 1844 indicates that George Halloran was a contact for Edmund McDonnell. Edmund and his Countess did not have any known children before her death in 1834; Edmund survived until 1852 when Glenarm passed to the aforementioned Hugh Seymour.[v]



Given the nautical career of McDonnell and O’Halloran, it should also be noted that Lord Mark Kerr, husband to Charlotte, Countess of Antrim, was a Royal Navy veteran who fetched up as a Rear Admiral. Malcolmson described him as ‘a landless seaman’. What makes all this particularly relevant is that in 1845 G S Halloran launched the Lady Louisa Kerr, a schooner named after the daughter of Lord Mark Kerr and the Countess of Antrim.



Thomas McDonnell was reputedly born in Antrim in 1788 and commissioned into the Royal Navy as a Midshipman (ie: an apprentice officer) in 1804 or 1805, on the eve of Trafalgar. Oral family history suggests he may have been the illegitimate son of Lord Antrim. Or could he have been connected to the Belfast trader Thomas M'Donnell who was named in this advertisement which appeared in the Belfast Commercial Chronicle on 19 July 1806?

THOMAS MCDONNELL HAS RECEIVED Per the Ship American, from New-York, 60 BALES of New Orleans and Upland Georgia COTTON WOOL, which he will dispose of on very moderate Terms. Belfast, July 17.

His elusive Midshipman's Commission, purchased in 1804, should show the name of his sponsor and may shed further light on the circumstances regarding his joining the Navy.


HMS HERO (1808-1810)

From 25 March 1808 until 13 Dec 1808 Thomas M’Donnell was recorded as Master’s Mate with HMS Hero, serving in the Home Waters and the Baltic Sea. [vi] Master's Mates were generally experienced seamen, and were usually selected from the ranks of the quartermasters, who they supervised. As a Master's mate, he was now allowed to command the vessel, walk the quarterdeck, and mess in the gunroom with the other warrant officers. His responsibilities would have included fitting out the ship, making sure they had all the sailing supplies necessary for the voyage, assisting the master in navigating the ship and directly supervising the quartermasters in steering the ship. He also oversaw the hoisting and lowering of the anchor, as well as the docking and undocking of the ship. His daily ritual would have been to notify Hero’s master of any problems with the sails, masts, ropes, or pulleys. He executed the orders of the master, and was ready to step in and take command in the master’s place if he was sick or absent. He would probably have worked on a three-watch system, with the lieutenants, so that one served as the deputy to the lieutenant on each watch.

Hero, a 74-gun third rate ship, had been launched less than five years earlier at Blackwall Yard.[vii] She took part in Admiral Robert Calder's action at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1805, as well as the capture of four French ships in the aftermath of the battle of Trafalgar.[viii] From 1808 until her tragic finale in 1811, Hero was commanded by Captain James Newman-Newman (1767–1811), a veteran who had chased the French fleet off the coast of Ireland when they attempted their invasion in the summer of 1798. The ship was in the North Sea during 1808.

From 14 December 1808 to 7 February 1809 he was recorded as a Midshipman with Hero. [ix] From 8 February 1809 to 17 July 1810 he was recorded as Master’s Mate again, remaining with Hero. [x] Many midshipmen took positions as master's mates at this time in return for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship. It may be that he was now the master's mate with the highest seniority, in which case he would have been appointed the head of the midshipman's berth and given responsibility for teaching mathematics, navigation, and sailing lore. Master's mates had to keep detailed logs similar to midshipmen. They were also responsible for the division of the crew that included the petty officers.

On 25 February 1809, Hero was one of five ships (along with Theseus, Revenge, Triumph and Valiant) who joined Rear Admiral Stopford off the Chasseron lighthouse on the Biscay coast of France, where he was blockading a French fleet in the Basque Roads. Hero did not take any active part in the ensuing battle which started on 11 April. Thomas M’Donnell was presumably also involved when Hero’s launch served with Captain Cockburn's flotilla during a ferocious attack on the Dutch port of Flushing in August 1809; they had one killed and two wounded. [xi] This was during the Walcheren Campaign, an unsuccessful British expedition to the Netherlands.

Having served at least three years as a midshipman or master's mate, Thomas was now eligible to take the examination for lieutenant. He duly ‘passed for Lieutenant’ on 5 April 1810 and was formerly promoted to lieutenant on 18 July 1810. [xii]

In 1811 Hero, was tasked with escorting a large convoy from the Swedish port of Gothenburg to London, that included other ships of the Baltic Fleet. Returning in late 1811, the convoy was struck by a terrible storm which wrecked over 30 merchant ships and, on 24 December, claimed the flagship HMS St George and HMS Defence along the coast of Jutland. Hundreds died, including Admiral Robert Carthew Reynolds. The following day, Christmas Day 1811, Hero herself was driven ashore on the Haak Sands at the mouth of the Texel in the Frisian Islands of north Holland. The weather was so appalling that no rescue boats could be launched and the ship went down, with the loss of all but 12 of her 530 crew, bringing the total loss of life from the storm to over 2,000. Captain James Newman-Newman was among the dead.


HMS OPOSSUM (1810-1812)

On 9 December 1810, Thomas M’Donnell became Lieutenant on board the copper-bottomed HMS Opossum, 10-guns, described by a contemporary newspaper as a ‘brig-sloop of a very handsome construction’. The Cherokee class ship was built at Gillingham (Chatham) in 1808 and armed with 8 x 18-ppunder carronades and 2 x 6-pounder long guns. Between 1808 and January 1811, Opossum voyaged to places such as Surinam, Halifax, Jamaica and the Caribbean under the command of Captain William Henry Byam, an old comrade of Jane Austen’s brother Charles.[xiii] Command of the ship then passed to the Plymouth-born Captain Thomas Wolridge.

In 1811 and 1812 the ship was recorded at the Leeward Islands in the north-eastern Caribbean Sea. During this time, Thomas would have learned the appalling news about the sinking of Hero, his former ship. He remained on Opossum until 25 June 1812, his service lasting for one year, seven months and four days. This period coincided with the Anglo-American War of that period (misleadingly known as the War of 1812).


HMS VALIANT (1813-1814)

On 2 January 1813, Thomas was appointed Lieutenant on HMS Valiant, remaining on the ship for one year, seven months, three weeks and a day. Since 1811 she had been under the command of Captain Robert Dudley Oliver. The ship had just been refitted at Portsmouth and departed for North America on 14 January. A couple of days later, contrary winds and stormy weather obliged her to put into Cawsand Bay, Cornwall, but she then set sail once more for Halifax. On 31 March 1813 Valiant was in company with HMS Hogue, when Thomas would have beheld the exciting view of the Nymphe re-capturing the brig Eliza, from St. Kitt's, laden with rum. By 7 April, Valiant, Hogue and Nymphe were all watering at Block Island, off the coast of the U.S. state of Rhode Island. On 1 Jun 1813, operating out of Halifax, Valiant joined HMS Acasta in chasing three US ships (United-States, Macedonian and Hornet), which had just departed from New York, into the port of New London, north of Long Island. [xiv]

On 18 June 1813, Valiant participated in a successful 100-mile chase of Porcupine, a 20-gun American brig sailing from Bayonne on the south-west coast of France to Boston with 72 men on board. Captain Oliver, who became the senior officer in Long Island Sound, penned a letter to Admiral Sir J. B. Warren explaining the good news that they had captured the enemy brig off Cape Sable, Florida, and said of Porcupine: ‘She is a beautiful vessel, of more than 300 tons, only eight months old.’ Valiant was at Bermuda by the end of January 1814 and then headed back to Plymouth via Havana, arriving on 28 March. Thomas left the ship on 7 August 1814, shortly before the ship was due to sail to Brazil. Valiant was subsequently docked and refitted at Portsmouth before being taken out of commission in 1816 and broken up in 1823.[xv] Captain Oliver’s letters may be worth sourcing as they may give further insights into Thomas’s activities.



Discharged in 1814, Thomas McDonnell then commanded a ship for the East India Company, working the Caribbean Trade, which suggests his involvement in slavery or sugar. According to one account, he ‘served in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, travelled in India and fitted out an opium clipper for trade in China and the Islands.’[xvi] One wonders whether he was the Captain M'Donnell named in this report from the Morning Chronicle of 9 October 1823:

‘PENANG, MARCH 4.-We understand that Captain M'Donnell has brought from Siam a most valuable and rare collection of curiosities; among which is a band of music, containing every instrument used by the people of that country, and presented to him by the young Prince Chow Fa, all of which, with a small state boat, are now in the possession of Sir Stamford Raffles. Captain M'Donnell has also procured a number of sacred and other Siamese books, which we trust may throw a light upon the history of a nation so little known to Europeans, and we look forward with impatience to the period when Sir Stamford will gratify the literary world with their translation. The Siamese, we understand from Captain M'Donnell, were erecting a fifty-gun battery on the shoal opposite to Pachame, near the entrance of the river. This intelligence confirms the former report. By private information received at Malacca through a Siamese junk, we learn that Captain Thistle, Commander of the grab brig Dudalby, has been scalped at Siam. On the 11th ult. at sunrise, minute guns, to the number of 48, corresponding with the age of his Excellency the Governor of Malacca, were fired from the ramparts of Fort Cornwallis, conformable to the Government order.’[xvii]

He is said to have visited Sydney in 1828-29 and commanded a brig in the China Seas. [xviii] According to an article by James Belich in the ‘Dictionary of New Zealand Biography’ (under the entry for his son Thomas McDonnell): "By 1828 he was a merchant and ship owner trading in various goods, including Chinese opium.” A notice in the Belfast Newsletter of 15 April 1828 shows that Captain McDonnell was sailing for Jamaica in a brig called John Echlin; interested parties were to apply to George S and Richard Halloran in Belfast. Similarly, in April 1832, the Halloran brothers of 39, Donegall Quay, Belfast, were the people to consult if interested in sending freight or passengers on the brig Adventure, bound for Jamaica via Antigua under Captain William Wilson.


TE HOREKE (1830-1843)

In 1830, Thomas M’Donnell purchased the Te Horeke shipbuilding yard by Hokianga Harbour from Messrs Jones and Walker, the trustees of Messrs. Raine, Ramsay, and Brown, ‘then bankrupts.’ He also acquired their property at "Rau Rau," in the Hokianga district, along with the buildings thereupon, a quantity of timber, and a new ship of 400 tons, namely the Sir George Murray, more of which anon. How could he afford this? Had he made a fortune trading opium and such like, or was he perhaps supported by other investors? Given that he arrived with ‘a party of settlers,’ as well as his family and servants, there may well have been ‘the lure of cheap land held out to fellow speculators.'[xix] The colourful notion that he was perhaps financed by the wealthy McDonnell kinsmen in Ireland has sadly been vetoed by the McDonnell Family in Glenarm (Earls of Antrim) who state that he received no traceable money from them as at that time as, in 1830, all of their funds were tied up in developing their lime works and other properties in Glenarm. [xx]

Over the ensuing decade, he extended his purchase, made roads, cleared the land, erected buildings, formed extensive docks and converted Te Horeke into a trading depot that also served as the principal timber-trading station on the Hokianga throughout the 1830s. [xxi] His acquisition of these extra lands would be the subject of his 1856 petition.[xxii] Regarded as the first industrial site in New Zealand, it duly became known as "the Deptford of the South". He had also reportedly ‘discovered a mine of Cobalt’ by 1831 and is said to have traded with the Maoris for kauri spars which were rafted down the Hokianga Harbour. [xxiii]

Among the ships built at Horeke was Sir George Murray, a 392-ton barque which M’Donnell bought at an auction in Sydney in January 1831 for STG£1300.[xxiv] According to an article entitled 'First Commercial Shipyard in Horeke’ on hokianga.net.nz: "McDonnell fitted out the barque, and on 30 March 1831, with his family, servants, and a number of settlers, sailed for Hokianga … Sir George Murray was [also] rumoured to be sailing under a foreign flag.” On 9 July 1831, he set sail from Hokianga for Sydney on Sir George Murray with his wife, two children, Mr Weller and a cargo of ‘Lading, Planks and Spars’.[xxv] As well as timber and flax, he also apparently carried cobalt and ‘several specimens of silver and copper ore’.

In early August 1831, he sailed the ship into Sydney where it was noted: ‘Capt. M'Donnell joins former travellers in eulogising the great natural riches and commercial advantages of New Zealand, and as one engaged in the trade generally, seems to relish the idea of a Russian war with reference to the flax trade. And if a Baltic war should follow, the spars of New Zealand as well as her flax, would rise in value. New Zealand abounds with harbours, and with a savage, but hardy industrious people, capable of great exertions in loading vessels with timber and flax.’[xxvi] Moreover, as the Sydney Herald observed, the foreign flag was in fact the New Zealand flag, and Thomas is credited with being the first person to exhibit them on the masthead:

‘Captain M’Donnell of the Sir George Murray hoists the New Zealand colours at the mast head; they are the English St George ensign, the ground of one quarter being blue, and having a half moon at its centre. This is, we believe, the first time these colours have ever been exhibited.’[xxvii]

He commanded the Sir George Murray on its voyage back to New Zealand, departing from Sydney on 5 October 1831.[xxviii] In 1833 he bought the American schooner Chinchilla.



Thomas was married twice but the name of his first wife is as yet unknown. She is said to have died at Hokianga.[xxix] They had at least one daughter by his first marriage, namely Anna McDonnell, who was born at Hokianga on 21 May 1828. She went on to marry Yorkshire-born bank clerk Edward Spofforth. Their son Fred Spofforth (1853–1926) was the celebrated ‘Demon Bowler’, regarded as the Australian cricket team's finest pace bowler of the nineteenth century, as well as being the first bowler to take 50 Test wickets, and the first to take a Test hat-trick in 1879.[xxx] Born on 9 September 1853, Fred Spofforth also spent his early childhood in Hokianga along with his brother Edward Arthur Spofforth and sister Ann (or Anna).[xxxi]

Thomas’s son Thomas McDonnell (1832-1898) was born to his first wife on 15 September 1832. Thomas Jnr was baptized in St Mary’s Church, in the parish of St Mary-le-Bone, on 25 January 1834. His date of birth is recorded on his baptismal record while his parents lived as 16 Dorset Place, Dorset Square, London. The baptism was conducted by the Rev. R. H. Millington.[xxxii]



On 11 January 1834, the widowed Thomas M’Donnell was married secondly to Anna Pattenson (1804-1853), the thirty-year-old daughter of John Edward Pattenson of Melmerby Hall, near Penrith, Cumberland, by his wife, Mary Anna Frances Antoinetta (nee Harris).[xxxiii] The wedding took place at St Mary-le-Bone, London, was conducted by the Rev. Bryant Burgess, Curate of St Mary-le-Bone, with William George Pau, clerk to the church, and John C Stamps (?) as witnesses.[xxxiv]

John Pattenson served with the Bengal Civil Service, then run by the East Indian Company. In June 1801 he was appointed first assistant to the British commercial resident at Dacca, Bengal (aka Dhaka, Bangladesh). [xxxv] This was at a time when there was a high demand for Dhaka muslin which grew, according to Dr James Taylor in 1800, in ‘a tract of land … twelve miles southeast of Dacca, along the banks of the Meghna.’[xxxvi] It appears that John was the second son of Thomas Pattenson of Melmerby Hall and that he died at Dacca on 21 March 1817, shortly before the Commercial Residency was abolished.[xxxvii]

Anna’s widowed mother died at Melmerby Hall on 7 November 1837; she was described in the Bristol Mercury as ‘formerly of Clifton’.[xxxviii] Her eldest sister Mary Jane Pattenson married the Rev Edwin Jacob, professor of Classics and principal of the King’s College at Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada; she died at Mapledown in the New Brunswick parish of Douglas on 18 August 1866.[xxxix] One of her brothers, the Rev. Robert Cane Pattenson, was rector of Melmurbury for over forty years.

Thomas must have dashed back to New Zealand soon after his wedding because it is recorded that on the afternoon of 19 June 1834, ‘on his arrival from New Zealand’, Lieutenant Thomas McDonnell, RN, attended His Majesty’s Levee at St James’s Palace, London, where he was presented to King William IV by the Right Hon. Lord Lyndhurst.[xl] Lord Lyndhurst was Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer at this time and went on to serve as Lord Chancellor to Robert Peel. In 1834, Lord Lyndhurst was mourning the death of his first wife, Sarah, a daughter of Charles Brunsden and widow of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Thomas, First Guards, who was killed at Waterloo.

In 1834, Thomas M’Donnell presented a paper on New Zealand to the Royal Geographic Society, which was published in December 1834 in The Athenaeum, Vol. 34.[xli]



Thomas McDonnell returned to New Zealand in late 1834 or early 1835, with ‘twelve Europeans’ who he put into Te Horeke at his own expense.[xlii] He also now held the honorary appointment as Additional British Resident, under contract to the British Admiralty. By 3 August 1835, he was back at Hokianga.

In November 1835, he set out in the Tui to explore the Kaipara Harbour on the West Coast of the North Island.[xliii] The 35-ton schooner Tui is thought to be the only vessel built at Te Horeke during McDonnell's ownership of whom any details survive. According to Brian Hooker’s work "Early Pacific Ships and Personalities", McDonnell is unlikely to have sailed the schooner further than northern parts of the North Island. McDonnell investigated as far as the entrance of the Mokau River, which he named “Tui Bay” in a chart he compiled for the London mapmaker James Wyld the Elder (1790–1836) in 1834. Hooker notes that while M’Donnell ‘is often credited with having visited many parts of New Zealand … his highly inaccurate chart suggests the improbability of his having done this.’

Colonel Wakefield briefly described the Kaipara expedition while McDonnell penned two longer accounts – the first a report to the British Resident, James Busby, and the second, a letter to the Royal Geographic Society, London, in which he claimed that he had opened the harbour at Kaipara to European shipping. The latter account appears in ‘Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum’, Volumes 7-9 (1970), p. 124. He was closely involved in mapping New Zealand at this time - as per records in National Archives - but apparently his maps came in for criticism for being inaccurate and causing shipwrecks.[xliv]

Between 1832 and 1842, he spent over a decade based in a house that was originally built for Captain David Clark, the superintendent of Raine, Ramsay, and Browne's shipyard at Te Horeke. Clark, who also built Sir George Murray, was drowned in November 1831, aged 65. The house was then briefly occupied by the shipyard owner Gordon Davies Browne, before M’Donnell moved in.[xlv] M’Donnell is said to have ‘lived in some style, with a large house, imposing gardens, and several pieces of cannon. He was indeed by virtue of birth, experience, possessions, and pretensions the leading settler in the Hokianga.’ [xlvi]

His life was certainly not without excitement. In December 1835, for instance, he oversaw the capture of a brigantine Industry which had been taken over by a mutinous crew who had murdered their commander on passage between Van Diemen’s Land and Hokianga. He observed that the mutineers had since ‘suffered the extreme penalty of the law.’[xlvii]

He appears to have had frequent arguments with his superior, the main British Resident, James Busby, ultimately leading to his resignation before the close of 1835. It may have been after this that he became Agent for Lloyd’s.

On a more peaceful note, ‘McDonnell was a keen horticulturist and among his other introductions to New Zealand was the Norfolk Island pine, the well-known trees at Waitangi and Te Wahapu in the Bay of Islands being the sole survivors of a box of seedlings given by him to Mrs Mair in 1836 or 1837. The large pine in front of the Horeke hall was probably planted about the same time, in what was then McDonnell's garden.’[xlviii]



On 15 June 1838, ‘Thomas M'Donnell, late additional British resident at New Zealand, had an interview with Lord Glenelg … at the Colonial-office, on his return from that country.’[xlix] Lord Glenelg had been Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in Lord Melbourne’s cabinet since 1835. Some of their talk may have concerned a subject which reared its head in September 1838 when a man by name of Baron de Thierry claimed to have established a settlement on New Zealand. Thomas M’Donnell sought to redress what he felt was a ‘grievous injury’ in Thierry’s claims, including an allegation that he was fond of brandy.

Writing to the editor of the Morning Chronicle from Dorset-place, Thomas wrote: “I have been for years a resident on the spot, invested with official authority by the British Government, the owner of a large tract of territory in the immediate vicinity, and in habits of friendly intercourse and possessing extensive influence ever all the native chiefs within an extent of several hundred miles. These circumstances, with the addition of a familiarity with the customs and character of the aborigines, and a partial knowledge of their language, the result of years of close observation, will, I think, entitle me to pronounce an opinion as to the justice of the territorial claims set up by the person calling himself the Baron de Thierry, and the probabilities of the ultimate issue of his visionary projects of colonization, which must have the effect of opening the eyes of the British public.’[l]

On 5 December, M’Donnell had another ‘long conference with Lord Glenelg … at the Colonial-office, on business connected with New Zealand.’[li] Lord Glenelg resigned as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in February 1839.

M'Donnell’s time in London was not inactive. On 29th April 1839, his wife had a baby boy at their home on Dorset Place. News of his birth was notably carried in both The Spectator and the Limerick Chronicle.[lii] He also had to contend with a footman in his service who was caught stealing a gold-watch and some silver cutlery from his home.[liii]



Disaster struck in 1842 when McDonnell’s home in Te Horeke was utterly destroyed by fire, after which the shipbuilding yard went into rapid decline. The Bay of Islands NZ Gazette & Wellington Spectator (12 November 1842) described the totality of the fire: ‘It is with much regret we announce the total destruction of Captain M'Donald's dwelling-house at the Hourake [sic], Hokianga. The fire was not discovered in time to save the slightest vestige of the building, or the valuable property which it contained.’[liv] Among the documents destroyed are thought to have been McDonnell's Maori deeds of sale.[lv]

He evidently remained at Hokianga, as the following report published by the Morning Chronicle on 11 January 1845 suggests: ‘The population of Hokianga is stated by Lieutenant M'Donnell at from 250 to 300. This comes pretty near the government return quoted above. The lay- settlers are principally engaged in cutting and shipping wood. No whalers resort to Hokianga. A good many vessels have been built there. The Wesleyan Missionaries have done little in the way of cultivation; but the lay- settlers have considerable patches of cultivated ground about their dwellings.’ Elsewhere it is noted that William White, the Wesleyan missionary, was Thomas M’Donnell’s inveterate enemy.[lvi]

On 4 October 1846, Anna McDonnell had a baby girl, thought to have been Clementine McDonnell.[lvii] Anna McDonnell passed away in 1853, at age 49

Under pressure from Maori and other settlers in the Hokianga, he moved to the Whangarei District in 1858. He was made Commander on 14 January 1862. He died on 13 September 1864 at the Pa near Onehunga, Auckland, having sustained severe injuries when thrown from his horse in the Khyber Pass Road.[lviii] His death was reported in the Quarterly Naval Obituary section of the Naval & Military Gazette and Weekly Chronicle of the United Service on 1 April 1865.


COLONEL T. W. McDONNELL (1832-1898)

McDonnell’s son Colonel Thomas W. McDonnell (1832-1898) was commander of the police force at Patea during a particularly violent period, as per the following report in The Scotsman of 27 August 1868:

DISTURBANCES IN NEW ZEALAND . —The New Zealand correspondent of the Times writes on July 8: — "Native matters have again cropped up painfully , four Europeans and two natives having been murdered on the west coast in the Taranaki province . At Patea and its neighbourhood the land is occupied here and there by a few military settlers, who received grants from the Government of small blocks of sixty or eighty acres for services rendered. All the land is confiscated land, and the murders are known to be acts of retaliation, and not the result of any organisation—just such murders as that of Mr Featherstonhaugh lately in Ireland. The particulars are as follow —

On the 9th June, a settler named Cahill was engaged with two others, named Clark and Squires , in sawing timber for a house they were erecting, when they were suddenly fired on by a concealed party of natives , and either killed or wounded. The natives then hacked them in pieces with their tomahawks, and decamped. Some friendly natives gave information, and the bodies were next day recovered. A few days afterwards one of the armed constabulary, named Smith, was out catching his horse, when he fell into an ambush, and was shot, his body being mutilated and partly carried away. This occurred within range of the glasses at the stockade occupied by the constabulary. Alarmed at these proceedings, a friendly native endeavoured to remove some property he had in the neighbourhood, but met with a similar fate in doing so. Another friendly native has since been murdered, the details of which are not, however, known. The burning of a couple of houses completes the doings of west coast rebels for this month. Colonel M'Donnell, in charge of the armed constabulary at Patea, numbering 110 men, immediately came into Wellington to consult the Government and obtain reinforcements. The necessity for doing something was apparent, but the cost of raising reinforcements, so near to the opening of the Assembly, made Ministers hesitate. Colonel M'Donnell wanted a force of 500 men for six months, but only eighty were ordered to be newly raised for three months, and eighty-five of the Waikato and Tarauaki constabulary brought down to Patea. With these and some fifty natives, Colonel M'Donnell will do the best he can to punish the tribe who are fostering the murderers. If not fettered, we believe he will do his work well, but much precious time has necessarily been lost. Two natives, supposed to be in complicity with the murderers, have been arrested. At Hokianga, a quarrel between two tribes, resulting in the shooting of one oi their number, has been quietly settled, after assuming unpleasant appearances for the peace of that district, and the man who shot the deceased given up to justice."

Colonel M’Donnell married twice. By his first wife Rose Von Dadelszen (or Dadelsen / Dadelzen), he was father to Alexander William McDonnell (1866-1938), Violet Orfeur McDonnell and Hilda Bernadine McMurdo. Alexander became a bookseller in Auckland and is thought to be the same as Tamatea Meeke Tanera, Kai Ta me te Kai Panui hoki, Free Press Printery, 355 Queen Street Auckland. A biographical note from the Auckland War Memorial Museum quotes a news report from the Evening Post of July 1938 which stated:

"Mr. Alexander Francis McDonnell has died in Wanganui; of injuries received when he was knocked down by a motor vehicle. Mr. McDonnell was a son of the late Colonel T. W. McDonnell, who played a prominent part in the Maori wars along the west coast. After his mother died he was taken to live with a Maori family in the Waikato and stayed with them until he was 18 years of age. Because of his youth with the Maoris he was perhaps one of the greatest European authorities on the race in New Zealand. In "his younger days Mr. McDonnell was private secretary to the Hon. Hori Kerei Taiaroa, M.L.C., a prominent Otago chief, and later married his daughter. He went to Wanganui from the Hawke's Bay, district about eight years ago and entered business as an interpreter and. adviser to the Maori people. He was recently elected chairman of the Maori Welfare League.’[lix]

One of Colonel McDonnell’s men during the Taranaki campaign was his cousin George Stewart O'Halloran (1845-1910), who spent the period 1863-1872 in the Militia and Armed Constabulary and was Captain of the Patea Cavalry. An extract from George’s autobiography reads as follows:

"Here are the instructions I received, written in pencil on a fly-leaf of the Colonel's pocket-book whilst he sat on his horse before starting for the front.
'Captain O'Halloran will proceed to Whanganui with as little delay as possible and if necessary stop the press and have the following advertisement inserted.- Cavalry Volunteers for the Front. Captain O'Halloran has instructions to raise in Whanganui about 30 men for the Patea Yeomanry Cavalry. Conditions etc will be explained to the men by Captain O'Halloran.
Signed Thomas McDonnell, Lieutenant Colonel Commanding Patea Field Force August 3rd 1868'

Captain O'Halloran and Lieutenant Bryce were both mentioned in dispatches for the part they played in the battle of Handley's Woolshed in which eight natives were killed in a cavalry charge. The Patea Cavalry also fought in the Battle of Ngu-o-Te Manu on 7 Sep 1868 (George's 23rd birthday) in Von Tempsky's Division. Alan Martin was presented with George’s cavalry sword by a cousin and has since passed it on to his nephew who is a policeman in Wellington.

Other Ulstermen involved in the Taranaki campaign who also received promotion were John Ballance (who became Prime Minister of New Zealand) and Lieutenant John Boyce, of the Kai-Iwi Cavalry (who, as Minister of Native Affairs, will oversaw the storming of Parahaki Pa in 1881).



CORK, Nov. 8.—In the ship Thomas, Captain Frazer, now at Cove, on the prosecution of her voyage New South Wales, is the celebrated New Zealand Chief, Tippahu Cupa. This warlike native of the Southern Hemisphere has experienced some hospitality in the neighbourhood of Passage; at one gentleman’s house, he displayed a courtesy and politeness at dinner, that would not have disgraced European nobility. He has shown an instance of the happy effects of that civilization, which the Church Missionary Society has so laudably introduced in his fertile island, where, to a very late period, human flesh has been considered a great delicacy. On Sunday last Tippahu attended at Cove Church, where his demeanour was in every respect agreeable to the usages of civilized life. (Dublin Evening Post, 10 November 1825)

HISTORY IRELAND. A FEW Sets of O‘HALLORAN's HISTORY of IRELAND, in two Volumes Quarto, Price, in blue Board, 1d. 6s. to be had of T. M'DONNEL, Bookseller, No. 32, New-row, Thomas-street. An Apprentice wanted. Enquire as above. (Hibernian Journal; or, Chronicle of Liberty, 2 August 1784)

A BAD WIFE. NOTICE is hereby given that Mary M'Donnell, wife to Henry M'Donnell, of the county of Cavan, has eloped. Therefore I do hereby warn the Public not to credit her one farthing on my account, for I will not pay any debt she may contract. HENRY M'DONNELL. Dated this 19th day of April, 1802. (Saunders's News-Letter, 31 July 1802)

With thanks to Maria O’Brien and Alan Martin.

See also 'An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand' (1966), edited by A. H. McLintock.


[i] One wonders was he related to this man who died at Slevoir near Terryglass, and who also had antipodean links?

‘Melancholy Death of Randal M‘Donnell, Esq., from Drowning. —A most distressing accident, which resulted in the death of Randal M‘Donnell, Esq., of Slevoir, occurred on Thursday, and has occasioned very general regret amongst a large circle of friends and acquaintances, with whom the deceased gentleman had made himself highly esteemed and respected. Mr. M‘Donnell was much devoted to aquatic pursuits, and had made several voyages to Australia and other countries, and had only recently returned from a visit to relations in America. He was the proprietor of a yacht, which was moored in the River Shannon, opposite Slevoir, in the County Tipperary, and, as was his habit when at home, he proceeded, it appears, in a small boat, and got on board the yacht. After remaining some time, when stepping into the skiff, to return to Slevoir, it was capsized, and the unfortunate gentleman was thrown into the water. He was very lusty, and he soon disappeared. A peasant from the bank of the river witnessed the fatal occurrence, and ran to Slevoir-house and gave the alarm, when the Rev. Francis Synge and others hastened to the spot. Drags and boats were immediately procured, and after some time the body was discovered, but life was quite extinct. An inquest was held, this day, on view of the body, before T. T. Abbott, Esq., coroner, northern district of Tipperary, when, these facts having appeared in evidence, the jury returned a verdict of "Accidental death." Mr. M‘Donnell was brother-in-law to the Rev. Francis Synge, Luckeen glebe, and was nearly related to the members of other highly respectable families. His remains will be interred on Monday morning. It is stated that a brother of the deceased’s also perished some time ago by drowning. —Saunders' Newsletter. (Quoted in Newry Herald and Down, Armagh, and Louth Journal - Tuesday 09 February 1858).

[ii] "Pioneer Land Surveyors of New Zealand" by C A Lawn (New Zealand Institute of Surveyors), via https://books.google.ie/books/about/The_Pioneer_Land_Surveyors_of_New_Zealan.html?id=eyMsnQEACAAJ&hl=en

[iii] John Lodge, Mervyn Archdall, ‘The peerage of Ireland: or, A genealogical history of the present nobility of that kingdom’, Volume 1 (J. Moore, 1789) via https://books.google.ie/books?id=H0sTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA199&dq=%22EARL+OF+ANTRIM%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Dr2SVYm-JsexsAHn3bqQDA&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22EARL%20OF%20ANTRIM%22&f=false

[iv] See notes handwritten at foot of page 214 in John Lodge, Mervyn Archdall,The peerage of Ireland: or, A genealogical history of the present nobility of that kingdom, Volume 1 (J. Moore, 1789), via https://books.google.ie/books?id=H0sTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA199&dq=%22EARL+OF+ANTRIM%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Dr2SVYm-JsexsAHn3bqQDA&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22EARL%20OF%20ANTRIM%22&f=false

[v] The image file includes a number of documents relating to Edmund as well as a file of relevant pages from a book by Anthony Malcolmson called ‘The Pursuit of the Heiress: Aristocratic Marriage in Ireland 1740-1840'. (https://books.google.ie/books?id=_WavuZbI41UC&pg=PA259&dq=Edmund+McDonnell%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qsCSVZmRDsaZ7AbCm4bABA&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Edmund%20McDonnell%22&f=false)

[vi] UK National Archives, Order number: 1427449. Catalogue reference: ADM 196/5/266. Master's mates were experienced seamen, and were usually selected from the ranks of the quartermasters, who they supervised, or from the ranks of midshipmen who wanted more responsibility aboard ship; they were less commonly selected from other mates of warrant officers and able seamen. Master's mates were allowed to command vessels, walk the quarterdeck, and mess in the gunroom with the other warrant officers.

Master's mates were responsible for fitting out the ship and making sure they had all the sailing supplies necessary for the voyage. They hoisted and lowered the anchor, and docked and undocked the ship. They would examine the ship daily, notifying the master if there were problems with the sails, masts, ropes, or pulleys. They executed the orders of the master, and would command in his place if he was sick or absent.

Normally master's mates worked on a three-watch system, with the lieutenants, so that one served as the deputy to the lieutenant on each watch. Master's mates generally assisted the master in navigating the ship and directly supervised the quartermasters in steering the ship. The master's mate with the highest seniority was appointed the head of the midshipman's berth and was responsible for teaching mathematics, navigation, and sailing lore. Master's mates had to keep detailed logs similar to midshipmen. They were also responsible for the division of the crew that included the petty officers.

[vii] Lavery, Brian (2003) The Ship of the Line - Volume 1: The development of the battlefleet 1650-1850. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8.

[viii] Michael Phillips' Ships of the Old Navy - http://www.ageofnelson.org/MichaelPhillips/info.php?ref=1128

[ix] UK National Archives, Order number: 1427449. Catalogue reference: ADM 196/5/266. A midshipman is a subordinate (pre-commissioned) officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada (Naval Cadet), Australia, Bangladesh, Namibia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Kenya. In the 17th century, a midshipman was a rating for an experienced seaman, and the word derives from the area aboard a ship, amidships, either where the original rating worked on the ship, or where he was berthed. Beginning in the 18th century, a commissioned officer candidate was rated as a midshipman, and the seaman rating began to slowly die out. By the Napoleonic era (1793–1815), a midshipman was an apprentice officer who had previously served at least three years as a volunteer, officer's servant or able seaman, and was roughly equivalent to a present-day petty officer in rank and responsibilities. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or master's mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant. Promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, and many midshipmen took positions as master's mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship.

[x] UK National Archives, Order number: 1427449. Catalogue reference: ADM 196/5/266.

[xi] Michael Phillips' Ships of the Old Navy - http://www.ageofnelson.org/MichaelPhillips/info.php?ref=1128

[xii] UK National Archives, Order number: 1427449. Catalogue reference: ADM 196/5/266.

[xiii] Michael Phillips' Ships of the Old Navy - http://www.ageofnelson.org/MichaelPhillips/info.php?ref=1635 See also: William Henry Byam at Royal Naval Biography (1823) by John Marshall.

[xiv] Most of these details come from http://www.pbenyon.plus.com/18-1900/U/04953.html

[xv] London Courier and Evening Gazette, 27 April 1814.

[xvi] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[xvii] The same article appeared in the Morning Advertiser, 10 Oct 1823 and the Cumberland Pacquet, and Ware's Whitehaven Advertiser, 13 Oct 1823.

[xviii] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[xix] Stuart Park, January 2016 email, 'Ruth Ross (Encycl. NZ 1966)

[xx] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[xxi] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell See also See 1856 petition at https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/parliamentary/VP1856-I.2.1.80

[xxii] See 1856 petition at https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/parliamentary/VP1856-I.2.1.80

[xxiii] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[xxiv] ‘A “register” supposedly issued to him later that year by the Hokianga chiefs Patuone and Te Taonui stated that the vessel was "three hundred and ninety two 64/94 Tons English measurement", with two decks and three masts, 109 ft in length and 28 ft 8 in. in breadth, barque rigged, with a standing bowsprit, square sterned, carvel built, no galleries, and a scroll figurehead.’ Quoted in 'First Commercial Shipyard in Horeke’ on hokianga.net.nz:

[xxv] Sydney Herald, 8 August 1831.

[xxvi] Sydney Monitor, 6 August 1831.

[xxvii] Sydney Herald, 22 August 1831.

[xxviii] Sailed, from Sydney, New South Wales, Oct. 5 [1831], the Sir George Murray. M'Donnell, for New Zealand. (Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser, 21 March 1832). According to hokianga.net.nz: ‘In 1833 [Sir George Murray] obtained an East India Company clearance at Macao, and this was endorsed in 1836. Her subsequent fate is unknown.

[xxix] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[xxx] See further details and photographs of Fred at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Spofforth)

[xxxi] On 25 June 1874, Ann Spofforth was married in Sydney to Charles Farquhar Clive of Collaroy, Merriwa, New South Wales.[xxxi] He was a son of George Clive, MP, and Ann Sybella Martha Farquhar. The Clives had a daughter Kathleen Clive (who married William Milner Ratcliff, son of D. R. Ratcliff, on 9 July 1896) and Archer Spofforth Clive (born 15 November 1879, married Ethel Wilson Ryan, daughter of Thomas Henry Ryan and Ellen Rhoda Milham, on 26 December 1910, died on 31 August 1941 at age 61).

[xxxii] The entry in The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (as well as all family trees on Ancestry) erroneously state that Thomas McDonnell (1832-1898) was the son of Thomas McDonnell and Anna Patterson/Pattenson but the older Thomas was recorded as a "widower" at the time of his 1834 wedding to Anna. Moreover, Thomas was born on 15 September 1832. Thomas was described as a lieutenant in the Royal Navy at this time.

[xxxiii] Anna’s eleven siblings included Robert Cane Pattenson and Mary Jane Pattenson Jacob. See https://www.myheritage.com/names/anna_mcdonnell and Pattenson of Melmerby

Hall http://www.therowleyestates.com/halls/melmerby-hall/

[xxxiv] Pau recorded as clerk of the church in Evening Mail - Friday 01 March 1833 and was the Registrar for Births and Deaths in the parish of St Mary-le-Bone. He lived at No. 16, Upper Baker-street, Regent’s Park. (Morning Advertiser, 17 August 1837)

[xxxv] The Asiatic Annual Register (1803), Civil Appointments, p. 96.

[xxxvi] ‘Our Story of Dhaka Muslin’ by Khademul Islam, Aramco (May/June 2016). Taylor penned ‘A Sketch of the Topography & Statistics of Dacca’, published by G.H. Huttmann, Military Orphan Press, in 1840.

[xxxvii] Cumberland Pacquet, and Ware's Whitehaven Advertiser, 2 December 1817.
[xxxviii] The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and Its Dependencies, Volume 24 (Black, Parbury, & Allen, 1837), p. 308; Bristol Mercury, 18 November 1837.
[xxxix] Whitehaven News - Thursday 11 October 1866.
[xl] Morning Chronicle, Thurs 19 June 1834.

[xli] Morning Post - Saturday 27 December 1834, p. 1.

[xlii] See 1856 petition at https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/parliamentary/VP1856-I.2.1.80

[xliii] ‘Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum’, Volumes 7-9 (1970), p. 124. His neighbours included the sportsman and Talavera veteran Colonel Peter Hawker who died at Dorset Place in 1853.

[xliv] See http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/rd/58544a4c-4527-4e97-8a20-0cdb2da50a85 or http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C6743951 or http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C3477406

[xlv] Not the Prime Minister! hokianga.net.nz

[xlvi] Comments from the journals of Edward Markham, Buller, quoted in ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[xlvii] SHIP NEWS. Extract of a letter from Lieutenant Thomas M’Donnell, Royal Navy, Agent for Lloyd's at New Zealand, dated 30th September. "My letters of the 4th and 31st of December, 1835, will have acquainted you of my recovering the brigantine Industry, from her crew, who had murdered their commander on their passage from Van Diemen’s Land to this port, with the steps adopted by me to secure the murderers (who have since suffered the extreme penalty of the law), and to place the vessel and cargo under the Van Diemen’s Land Government. (Morning Advertiser - 24 July 1837; Western Courier, West of England Conservative, Plymouth and Devonport Advertiser - 2 August 1837)

[xlviii] Quoted at hokianga.net.nz It is claimed that he also named Port McDonnell in Hawke's Bay on the east coast of the North Island, but I cannot find Port McDonnell in that bay. Please advise if you know more!

[xlix] Morning Chronicle, 16 June 1838.

[l] He wrote the letter on 12 September; it was published on 19 September. See attached article.

[li] Morning Chronicle, 6 December 1838. ‘Mr Thomas M'Donnell had a long conference with Lord GleneIg yesterday, at the Colonial-office, on business connected with New Zealand.’

[lii] On the 29th ult., the Lady of Thomas M'Donnell, Esq., of Dorset Place, Regent's Park, of a son. The Spectator, 4 May 1839, p. 414; Limerick Chronicle, 8 May 1839.

[liii] ‘At Marylebone office yesterday Joseph Hedge, a footman, in the service of Mr. M'Donnell 16, Dorset-place, New-road, was finally examined and committed to Newgate on a charge of having stolen a gold watch, and a number or silver spoons and forks, the property of his master. The particulars of the robbery have already appeared. Many of the articles traced to the prisoner were produced, and identified by Mr M’Donnell.’ Central Criminal Court - Morning Post, 13 August 1839. In other reports, Thomas is wrongly named as Thomas MacDermott.

[liv] Note that McDonnell was often referred to as 'McDonald or M'Donnell while 'Horeke' is also variously referred to as 'Hourake or 'Te Horeke'.

[lv] See Auckland Museum records on Thomas McDonnell papers.

[lvi] ‘Pre-1839 foreigners in NZ’ via https://sites.google.com/site/pre1839settlersinnz/home/more-details-3/thomas-mcdonnell

[lvii] BIRTH -New Zealander 24th October 1846. On the 4th instant at the Horeke, Hokianga, the wife of Thos. McDonnell Esq.,of a daughter.
Editor's note this is possibly Clementine McDonnell.

[lviii] THOMAS MCDONNELL - ACCIDENT ONEHUNGA, Southern Cross 8th September 1864
(Noted in the 1966 Encyclopedia of NZ Died of injuries 13th September 1864) ......

A very serious accident happened to Captain McDonnell, of the Pa, near Onehunga, a few days ago. He was riding homewards from Auckland, and when in the Khyber Pass Road, his horse threw him and he suffered some very severe injuries.

[lix] Evening Post (Volume CXXVI, Issue 22, 26 July 1938, Page 13) See Alexander William McDonnell’s papers at http://natlib.govt.nz/items?i%5Bdecade%5D=1860&i%5Bprimary_collection%5D=TAPUHI&il%5Bcollection%5D=McDonnell%2C+Alexander+Francis%2C+1866-1938+%3A+Papers