Turtle Bunbury

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TITANIC - THE SOUTHERN AFRICA CONNECTIONS

 

By Turtle Bunbury

Mail & Guardian, South Africa, 13 April 2012

Southampton, 10th April 1912. Austin van Billiard discreetly felt the lining of his suit jacket and counted. All good. A dozen uncut diamonds, thank you very much. By his side were his two sons, 11-year-old James and 9-year-old Walter. The boys were already well used to adventure. Austin and his petite London-born wife Maude had raised them in the rough and tumble backdrop of the Congo Free State and Central Africa where Austin had been operating as a diamond prospector since 1906.

Five years on, the van Billiards had had their fill of that unpredictable life. Armed with a haul of diamonds, they left Africa in early 1912. The French steamer they traveled on prohibited children but Austin and Maude sneaked their four kids on board when nobody was looking.[i] Austin had since had some diamonds cut in Amsterdam. Now the audacious, mustachioed 35-year-old was bound for New York, where he would perhaps cut the rest. Maude and their other two children would follow next week. And then it would be time to head home to Pennsylvania and surprise attack his parents who he hadn’t seen in over a decade. [ii] Eager not to arouse suspicion over his personal riches, Austin booked himself and his sons into a 3rd class cabin for the voyage.

Back on the quays, Harry Sutehall lit another cigarette, glanced up at the clock and sighed again. Still no sign of Howard, damn him. The 25-year-old London-born violinist ran his fingers over the two 3rd class tickets he’d purchased earlier in the week, one for himself and one for his buddy, Howard Irwin, the fiery tempered New Yorker with whom he had been travelling the world for the past two years. They’d funded much of their adventures through music; Harry with his violin and Howard the clarinet. But winning a talent contest in Durban was a major highlight and provided enough cash to fund their journey home. This Atlantic trip was supposed to be the final leg and what a ship to voyage upon - the largest vessel afloat on the whole darned globe! Only now Howard had vanished, leaving Harry holding onto his trunk and clarinet, as well as his own luggage and violin. Where the hell was he?

A few hundred metres away, Thomas Brown squeezed his wife’s hand as the dockers winched up 1,000 rolls of fresh bed linen into Titanic’s hold.[iii] For the Browns and their 15-year-old daughter Edith, this was part of a long journey from South Africa to Seattle where they intended to open up a new hotel. The 60-year-old from Worcester already had plenty of experience running a hotel in the Western Cape but business had been in decline and he wanted to start anew in America.[iv] Thomas liked to plan ahead. Hence, all the linen.

The Browns were in second class. So was Sidney Samuel Jacobsohn, a 42-year-old lawyer, bound for Montreal, Canada, with his young wife Amy. Jacobsohn had formerly been part of a Cape Town attorney practice called Walker & Jacobson, based at 16 Wale Street, operating as ‘Agents in Transvaal, Free State, Natal, and throughout South Africa generally.’

In another second class cabin was 52-year-old Cape Town born publisher Charles Henry Chapman, who was making his way home to his wife and children in Manhattan, New York, after a six-month tour of South Africa where he had been visiting his family. Chapman’s childhood was spent between South Africa and Namibia where his father James Chapman operated as a hunter and trader. The elder Chapman, an easygoing man, was also an explorer of considerable skill. In 1853, aged just 21, he explored the Zambesi River to within 70 miles (110 km) of the Victoria Falls, nearly pipping Livingstone’s discovery. However, he was destined to die aged just forty at Du Toit's Pan near Kimberley in 1871.[v] Charles’s maternal grandfather William Roome also made his mark on South African history as the mariner who sailed the artist and explorer Thomas Baines into Cape Town in 1842.

Also bound for New York was Samuel Greenberg, a 52-year-old balding, grey-haired, mustachioed Russian Jewish businessman. He was the South African representative of a New York firm and returning to his wife in the Bronx from a business trip to Johannesburg.

William Ware had also lately been in South Africa, visiting his father. The 23-year-old blacksmith from Cornwall was a married man, without children, and clearly restless. His travelling companion was 19-year-old Fred Pengelly, a Cornish miner, who was headed for Butte, Montana, where his stepfather is believed to have been prospering in the copper mines.[vi] It’s assumed William was going to Montana with him.

Henry Forbes Julian claimed he wasn’t excited about the impending trip, despite his first class ticket. 'I do not care at all for palm-court and gymnasium and such extra attractions,’ he told his sister-in-law. ‘I shall keep to the smoking-room and library, and only just look over the vessel before starting.' The 51-year-old Irishman knew a good deal about ships like Titanic and said he recognized many of the crew from his previous voyages.[vii] Julian's career had begun over 35 years earlier when, aged 24, he voyaged to Natal and began a seven year stint as a metallurgical engineer. In 1889, a journey he made up to the Victoria Falls prompted him to draft a report on the possibilities of developing “The Barotse Empire”, as he called it, but the Colonial Office ignored it. He went on to become a consulting engineer and gold mine manager in Natal, Barberton, Johannesburg and Kimberley and made a fortune with a patent for separating gold and silver from quartz. Although he later settled in England, he regularly returned to South Africa with his wife.

Julian managed to post a letter to his wife when Titanic was in Ireland. He conceded that ship was a cut above. The Parisian Cafe and gymnasium were 'full of the most wonderful machines.' His cabin was on E Deck, toward the stern of the ship on the starboard side and he described it as 'more like a small bedroom than a ship's cabin.' As a seasoned first class passenger, he probably recognized a few of those who glided into the magnificent First Class Saloon. Perhaps he exchanged some words with fellow Irishman Eddie Colley, whose uncle General Sir George Colley led the British at their disastrous battle of Majuba Hill thirty years earlier. Or maybe he tipped his hat at the well-known British journalist W.T. Stead, once amongst Cecil Rhodes key advisors but later a major opponent of British interests during the Anglo-Boer War.

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Above: Tom Cardeza and his mother Charlotte photographed some years before
Titanic sailed. They both survived by boarding Lifeboat 3, 17 of whose 32 occupants
were men, primarily First Class passengers.
(Photo courtesy of Scott Memorial Library, Thomas Jefferson University,
Philadelphia, USA) .

On 10th April, Titanic sailed from Southampton to Cherbourg, France, where a further 274 passengers boarded. Amongst them were like the New York millionaire John Astor, the mining tycoon Benjamin Guggenheim and the bespectacled 36-year-old Philadelphia banker Tom Cardeza. The latter had taken one of the most luxurious suites on board, valued at £512, 6s, for himself, his mother Charlotte and their valet. Charlotte, the daughter of a British textile magnate, lived a life of extreme luxury, game-hunting in Africa and had circumnavigated the globe several times in her private yacht. Tom was also a regular big game hunter and, in fact, mother and son were recuperating at a castle in Hungary after one such safari when Charlotte persuaded Tom to take a suite on Titanic.

Onwards Titanic sailed to Queenstown (Cobh) on the south coast of Ireland where she collected the last of her 1,317 passengers including Margaret Rice, a widowed housekeeper who was making the journey in 3rd class along with her five sons, the eldest of whom was ten.

Among the other 703 3rd class passengers on board was Nathan Goldsmith, a 41-year-old Russian bootmaker who had abandoned his business in Capetown on account of the Anglo-Boer War. He had since relocated to Philadelphia where he lived with his wife and two children.

Third class passenger Einar Windeløv, a 21-year-old Danish dairy worker, gave his address as Capetown. He appears to have been on the run after impregnating a 16-year-old neighbour in Denmark and had previously resided in Argentina.[viii]

In a nearby 3rd class cabin was Sam Risien, a 69-year-old American Civil War veteran, and his wife Emma, making their way home to Texas after a fourteen month stay in Durban with Emma’s relatives who were connected to the diamond mines.[ix]

Snoozing in another cabin was Francesco Celotti, a 24-year-old Italian stoker, who had been granted a passport at the Cape just over a year earlier.

As one passenger later recalled, “The last we saw of Europe was the Irish mountains dim and faint in the dropping darkness.” Three and a half days later, just before midnight, Titanic struck an iceberg off the coast of Newfoundland with such force that it ripped a 300-foot long series of punctures along her hull.[x]

Edith Brown was asleep in her cabin with her mother when the ship struck. Her father appeared in the room a few minutes later. 'You'd better put on your life jackets and something warm’, he said. ‘It's cold on deck. It's just a precaution. The steward in the corridor says it's nothing to worry about.'

Tom Cardeza was amongst the first on the upper deck and recalled how, amid people shouting and ‘confusion everywhere’ it was already apparent that they were in ‘terrible danger’.[xi]

‘We waited for ages on the boat deck for someone to tell us what to do’, recalled Edith Brown. ‘The ship's band was playing ragtime. They played to keep our spirits up. Everybody kept saying: 'She's unsinkable. She won't go down.' Father kissed us and saw us into Lifeboat 14.’

Nearly fifty people were crammed into the lifeboat including a man dressed as a woman. As the ship rowed away, Edith could still hear the band playing. Only now they were playing hymns instead of ragtime. She spent six hours in the lifeboat, without food and water, before the two big green lights of rescue ship Carpathia broke through the early morning mist. All she could think of was her father, last seen smoking a cigar and sipping brandy on deck, dressed in his Edwardian best.[xii]

At 2:27 a.m., Titanic split and sank. To borrow some words from Derek Mahon’s poem 'After the Titanic', she went ‘thundering down in a pandemonium of prams, pianos, sideboards, winches, boilers bursting and shredded ragtime.’

Henry Julian was last seen as one of a group of first-class passengers helping women and children into lifeboats.[xiii] W.T. Stead was last seen in the 1st Class Smoking Room, sitting in a leather chair, reading a book. Margaret Rice was last seen holding her three-year-old son Eugene while her other four children clung onto her skirt. None survived.

Austin van Billiard was wearing a grey suit, a green flannel shirt and brown boots when the cable ship MacKay Bennett recovered his body. On his possession they found a pipe, a purse containing £3 and 5 shillings, a gold watch, a pair of cuff links and a dozen loose uncut diamonds sewn into his suit. Walter’s body was floating nearby, his small frame well-wrapped in three coats and a woolly jumper. James’s body was never found.[xiv]
When Samuel Greenberg’s body was found, he was clad in a dressing gown and two coats, with two watches and $11 6s in his pocket. Charles Chapman was wearing a dark suit when they found him.[xv]

Thomas Brown’s body, if recovered, was never identified. Nor were the bodies of Einar Windeløv, Francesco Celotti, Wiliam Ware, Nathan Goldsmith, Fred Pengelly, W.T. Stead, Sidney Samuel Jacobsohn, Henry Julian, Eddie Colley (celebrating his 37th birthday that day) or the Risien’s bodies. Family lore holds that the latter, like Austin van Billiard, were bringing back diamonds and travelling third class so no one would guess what they had in their suitcases.

Harry Sutehall either sank to the ocean floor with the stern, or was one of the hundreds washed off the rear deck as it plunged into the water. Eight decades later, divers found Howard Irwin’s trunk, cracked it open and discovered his diary, which revealed the details of their world trip. As for Howard’s failure to make Titanic, he was knocked out during a scuffle with some English sailors in Southampton the night before. When he came to, he’d been shanghaied onto a ship bound for Turkey.

Elizabeth and Edith Brown later returned to South Africa where Edith married Frederick Thankful Haisman, an architectural engineer, with whom she had ten children. She was an honorary member of the Titanic Society of South Africa and the oldest Titanic survivor at the time of her death in 1997 at the age of 100 at a nursing home in Southampton.

 

With thanks to Patricia Frykberg (Chapman history), Alan Holmes (Chapman history), Tanya Pampalone and F. Michael Angelo (Thomas Jefferson University).

 

FURTHER READING

Titanic & Australia by Turtle Bunbury (The Australian, April 2012)

Titanic & Ireland by Turtle Bunbury (Ireland of the Welcomes, March 2012)

Titanic & South Africa by Turtle Bunbury (Mail & Guardian, South Africa, 13 April 2012 - see online version here)

Who sank the Titanic? by Turtle Bunbury

Violet Jessop - The Luckiest Stewardess Afloat by Turtle Bunbury (Irish Daily Mail, 12 April 2012)

 

FOOTNOTES

[i] This detail comes from Judith Geller (1998) Titanic: Women and Children First (W. W. Norton & Company, 1998) in which she says the Van Billiards got all four children aboard a French ship (on the first leg of their journey home from Africa) only by hiding the youngest under Maud’s cape while Austin distracted the boarding officer. Ms. Geller should be a reputable source. She is married to the recently retired president of RMS Titanic Inc., the public company with salvage rights to the wreck. She was director of merchandising for the RMS Titanic's hugely successful Titanic exhibition.

[ii] Austin Blyler Van Billiard was an adventurous 35-year-old American who had been living the rough life of a diamond prospector in the Congo Free State since 1906. His father James van Billiard was a successful marble and granite merchant from Wales, Pennsylvania. He had emigrated to Europe at the turn of the century and initially prospered as an electrician. While working on a project in Paris, he met London-born Maude Murray, who became his wife and mother to his four children. Austin was tall, dark and rail-thin with intense eyes and a red imperial moustache. Maude was short and delicate, the top of her head coming barely to Austin's shoulder. Maud was with him in Central Africa. Austin had amassed a fortune in uncut stones from his time on the diamond fields. It was now time to get home and cash in. Earlier in 1912, all six returned to London on board a French steamer that prohibited children on board; Austin and Maud duly smuggled their children on. He then had several diamonds cut in Amsterdam. (Reading Eagle, 23 April 1912). Maud did not accompany him when he decided to make a surprise visit to his parents in Pennsylvania. It was to be his first visit home in over a decade and he had decided to bring his two eldest sons with him, namely 11-year-old James and 9 year old Walter. First stop would be New York where he intended to sell the diamonds.

Despite having thousand of dollars worth of diamonds in his possession, Austin and his sons traveled in third class. Van Billiard family history holds this was because the names of first-class passengers arriving in New York might make it to the newspapers and Austin didn't want his parents to know of his intended visit.

The New York Times, April 22nd 1912 states that Austin’s initial plan to be ‘home by Easter [were] upset by the illness in London of his wife. He went to Amsterdam and had a number of his diamonds cut, and wrote that he would sail for America the latter part of April. Mr. Van Billiard [his father] said he had no doubt that Austin decided to come on the Titanic to surprise his parents’. Easter Sunday fell on April 7th. Judith Gellar also refers to the Amsterdam visit in her book, but no date is given.

[iii] Interview with Edith Haisman Brown, The New York Times biographical service, Volume 28 (New York Times & Arno Press, 1997), p. 126; Titanic: The Edith Brown Story, by David Haisman (AuthorHouse, 2009), p.27.

[iv] Thomas Brown was baptised in Cape Town on the 25th August 1851. His first wife, Isabella Gracilla/Greceilda (née Willoughby) died at the Cape in 1889. His first marriage produced 4 children - Lilian Henrietta (later married to Woolf), Harriet (later married to Bosman), Thomas Ralph and Ernest. His much younger (and second) wife was Elizabeth Catherine (née Ford, born in 1872 at the Cape) with whom he had two daughters, but one, Dorothy Beatrice, died at the age of eight, from diphtheria. Edith was born on the 27th October 1896. He registered various mortgage bonds at the Cape between 1884 and 1904, while Elizabeth registered one in 1904. Thomas was a successful hotel owner but business had declined so they were headed for Seattle where Elizabeth's sister, Josephine, lived with her husband Edward Acton.

[v] Charles’s maternal grandparents were Catherine Cecelia Bushnell and William Roome. They were married at Clonmel parish, Cobh, Co. Cork Ireland on 13 February 1827. They settled in Cape Town South Africa. Catherine was reputedly born in Virginia, USA.

Their daughter Catherine Cecilia Mary Chapman, nee Roome, 1835-1916, was Charles' mother. She was still alive and living in Port Elizabeth when he came to visit in 1911. Charles also visited his many cousins, some of whom lived in Cape Town, Johannesburg, and various other towns in the country.

On his father's side, Charles was the great-grandson of the Rev. Richard Chapman, Vicar of Bakenwell, in Derbyshire. The Rev. Chapman's son James (b. 1790) came to South Africa in 1828 and married a girl from a well known Boer family, Elizabeth Helena Henrietta Greeff of Malmsbury Cape. Their son James was one of South Africa's famous explorers, married Catherine Roome and fathered Charles.

At the time of Charles’s birth in 1860, James Chapman, his brother Henry Chapman and Thomas Baines were on a four year assignment, exploring the Zambesi from the Victoria Falls down to its delta, with a view to testing its navigability. Charles’s childhood was spent at various places in South Africa where his restless father tried to settle. James returned as a trader and hunter to Hereroland and Ovamboland in northern Namibia and died, aged 40, in 1871.

‘Mr. James Chapman, a South African traveller, much esteemed in Cape Colony, where he had been for many years a resident, died at Du Toit's Pan, in the Diamond Fields, on the 6th of February last.’ (The Journal of the Royal Geographic Society of London, Volume 42, J. Murray, 1872, p. clxxi).

Charles’s older brother William James Bushnell Chapman (1858-1932) migrated to Namibia in 1874, but in 1881 he settled in Angola, remaining there right up until the late 1920s where he became an influential member of the Angolan Boer community (although he was not a full Boer himself, just quarter Boer, although he always considered himself a staunch Britisher). Certainly in 1911 William was still living in Angola. There is no mention in William's journals of him ever meeting his brother Charles on the visit of 1911 /1912.

Charles settled in the USA as early as 1882 (perhaps even as early as 1880). He married an English woman, Ellen Victoria Lawrence (born c1866) in 1880, and the couple had four children, all born in America:
       1. Charles Lawrence Roome Chapman, born 1882 Manhattan, New York.
       2. William Charleston Chapman, born 1886 Charleston, South Carolina.
       3. Ralph Howard Chapman, born 1888 Atlanta, Georgia.
       4. Adele C. Chapman, born c1891 South Carolina.
The family appears to have remained in the Southern States for a number of years but returned to New York in the mid-to-late 1890s, setting up home once again in Manhattan.

[vi] On 18 April 1912 the Western Morning News reported that Fred’s mother had remarried a Mr G Reynolds who was away working in America. Family lore reckons Reynolds was probably a miner in Butte, Montana, and that Fred planned to meet him there.

Wiliam Ware and Fred Pengelly were accompanied by Harry and Shadrach Gale, two brothers in their 30s from nearby Harrowbarrow, who had emigrated to Idaho Springs, Colorado, where they were working as miners. All four were lost in the sinking; their bodies, if recovered, were never identified.

[vii] Metallurgical engineer Henry Forbes Julian belonged to a mixed Irish and Scottish family- the Julians being of French Hugenot descent settled in Ireland since the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and the Forbes the well-known Aberdeenshire family celebrated in Scottish history. He was born in Cork City in 1861, the son of a coach builder, and moved to Bolton, Manchester, with his family when he was 13.

In a letter to his wife, dated 11 April and posted in Queenstown (Cobh), he commented that more than half the officers and stewards were familiar faces to him, he having previously made their acquaintance on Adriatic and Oceanic.

[viii] He may have had an uncle in Iowa in the USA and his family are thought to have had a hotel on an island south of Copenhagen.

[ix] Emma Risien (nee Lellyet) was born in Durban and was actually a sister of Sam’s first wife who had died young. The Risiens spent 14 months in South Africa before making their way north to Southampton and the Titanic. Neither survived.

[x] Ship quartermaster Robert Hichens, a stocky 29-year-old from Cornwall, was at the wheel when the warning came from the lookout that an iceberg had been spotted ahead. He swung the wheel as far as possible and held it there until relieved by another Quartermaster. He was later put in charge of Lifeboat 6, including the Unsinkable Molly Brown, a Denver millionairess. He subsequently entered the annals of Titanic villainy when he allegedly refused to go back to pick up any survivors after the ship sank, holding that it was pointless and that they were already ‘stiffs’. A peculiar tale circulated in the 1920s that he had been set up as Harbourmaster in Cape Town in return for his silence, but no such appointment was ever made. His family members stated that he did spend some time in Durban and Johannesburg where his brother William lived. Robert later did four years for attempted murder. He died of heat failure on board a British cargo ship in 1960 and was survived by his wife and six children.

[xi] THE CARDEZAS
The North American (Philadelphia, Sunday Sept. 3, 1905) carrie an article entitled ‘BREEDS BUFFALO IN PENNSYLVANIA’ about sport hunting and TDM Cardeza and the family’s Montebello estate. On the 12 acre “Germantown farm” Tom was “breeding elk and bison…At one time thirty-seven [bison] brought from their native home were quartered there.” The article quotes a report by the Smithsonian Institution estimating that, at the end of 1903, there were 34 buffalo roaming at large and 969 in captivity in the US.
Tom Cardeza also leased a 50,000 acre preserve in Austria, near Balsden, on the Hungarian border, where wild boar was hunted in “his own Austrian forest.” “All over the tract are cabins…in which hunters may make themselves comfortable if night overtakes them on the chase. These scattered quarters have been put into condition for the use of the American sportsman and his friends and a number of American comforts have been added.”
The Cardezas were reputedly returning to the US from his Hungarian “hunting lodge” when they boarded Titanic. The story of Tom Cardeza’s survival on Titanic is confounded by there being several versions.
On 12 April 1914, the Washington Herald, reported that ‘J. [sic] D. M. Cardeza, of Philadelphia, who was among the rescued passengers of the Titanic, told how he said he witnessed Bruce Ismay’s departure from the doomed vessel. “After the terrific shock,” he said, “all of us rushed from the saloon and staterooms to the upper deck. People shouted and there was confusion everywhere. Soon the lights went out. All of us realized that the ship was in terrible danger and rushed to the hurricane deck.” ’
The most likely version holds that Tom had been ill and that his mother refused to enter the life boat without him and that the captain of the Titanic permitted him to go with her. Whether or not Captain Smith really got involved is unknown but Tom Cardeza was genuinely sick. He had a blood disorder throughout his entire life, which is why – when he died aged 77 in 1952 – he left $5,000,000 to Jefferson Medical College and Hospital to establish a hematology blood research clinic in his mother’s name.
Tom Cardeza escorted his mother to the lifeboat, along with Mrs. Astor and other well-to-do ladies, and recalled how Bruce Ismay was effectively forced to get into a lifeboat because the ladies insisted on having ‘a man to steer us’.
There is a strange story (2 Men Bribe Titanic Sailors; Save Lives, Chicago American, Thursday 25 April 1912 ) that Tom Cardeza bribed a sailor to give him two uniforms, one of which he donned, and that he gave the other to his valet. Posing as members of the crew, the men got into a lifeboat and were later picked up by the Carpathia, along with his mother and another woman companion.
Yet another version, apparently his own, runs that after the ladies lifeboat left Tom and “several others … caught a piece of the wreckage when the vessel sank. We tried to paddle it with pieces of wood. I don’t remember much that happened after we were thrown into the water, except that I was picked up’.
Since Tom, his manservant and his mother were all in Lifeboat 3, they must have entered together so, as Michael Angelo, University Archivist at Thomas Jefferson University, says, ‘any idea of his being in the water and locating his mother’s boat is absurd’.
‘Number 3 was lowered at 12:55pm’, continues Mr. Angelo, ‘and held 32 people, 17 of whom were men, and that except for the few crew members the entire compliment of that lifeboat were First Class passengers and their servants. So it seems there was little enforcement of gender priorities at that moment and at that davit.’
Mrs. Cardeza filed a claim against White Star Line for a staggering number of personal possessions, including clothing, jewels, furs, shoes and a pink, 7-carat diamond valued at $20,000.

[xii] The New York Times, January 23, 1997, ‘Edith Haisman, 100, Dies; Was Oldest Survivor of Titanic’. Amongst others fortunate enough to be picked up by Carpathia was 21-year-old Reginald Hardwick who is said to have been born in Pietermaritzburg, Natal, and who was working as a kitchen porter for £3 10s a month. He may have been the same Reginald Hardwick who subsequently worked for the Wellbeck Estate, rising to the surface of the Creswell Colliery in 1915. He succumbed to a two days illness at the Fulham Hospital, London just eight weeks after he joined the Army Service Corps as a Private in the latter stages of the war. He left a widow and a little child Lenard.

[xiii] His widow was to receive letters of sympathy from many people, not least King George V who ‘remembers very well his visit to your house at Torquay, and how much also he was interested in the interesting geological collections’.

[xiv] Austin and Walter were buried at the Zion Lutheran Church, Flourtown, Pennsylvania. James’s body, if found, was never identified. The first news his parents had of their being on the ship was when they read their names in the paper. And then Maude sent an ominous cablegram from London to confirm: “Austin and two eldest children sailed on Titanic. “MAUDE.” She eventually made it to North Wales, Pennsylvania with her two surviving children. She never remarried and died in a nursing home on 17 January 1968, aged 94.

[xv] Charles Chapman had a number of possessions and in his suit pockets, the following were found: silver cigarette case, garnet tie-pin, garnet ring, papers, gold mounted cuff-links, $200, gold studs, fountain pen, knife and pipe. Family lore holds that he had the Bushnell family bible with him on board the ship. JJ Griffin of New York City claimed his body. Charles was buried at the Woodlawn Cemetery, in the Bronx.

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