This accomplished branch of the family descend from Harry McClintock, Collector of Customs at Dundalk port and uncle of the first Lord Rathdonnell. Harry’s son Leopold would find lasting fame as the man who discovered the fate of Sir John Franklin’s Arctic expedition, while another son Alfred became Master of the Rotunda. Leopold’s children included a naval veteran of Gallipoli, a Royal irish Constable and a New Zealand emigrant, while his grandson was one of the great keepers of Irish language literature.
HARRY McCLINTOCK (1783-1843)
Henry McClintock, the admiral’s father, was the fourth son of Bumper Jack McClintock and younger brother of John ‘Old Turnip’ McClintock of Drumcar House, County Louth. His mother Patience (née Foster) was a cousin of John Foster, last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons before the Irish Parliament was closed down by the Act of Union.
According to the archives of the Northern Rangers, Henry was known as Harry. He served in the 3rd Dragoon Guards as young man but retired on marrying Elizabeth Melesina Fleury (d. 1853), a daughter of the Venerable George Fleury, Archdeacon of Waterford, who was himself a descendent of the French Huguenot (Protestant) pastor of Tours.
Harry became Collector of Customs at the Port of Dundalk and settled at Kincora House at 1-2 Seatown Place, Dundalk. The house was bring converted into apartments as of May 2021. Although relatively poor in comparison to his relatives, Harry was popular and well regarded in the county. His diaries, painstakingly transcribed by Pat O’Neill, where published by the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society and offer what PRONI rightly describe as ‘a meticulous record … of the life-style of a fairly humble member of the Ascendancy during the first half of the 19th century.’ The diary is particularly informative about Dundalk and Co. Louth, where Harry lived and worked for most of his life. It includes fascinating references to such events as the Wildgoose Lodge Murders and the presence of a velocipede (bicycle) in Dundalk in 1819 while I doff my cap to his doctor who told him to have three glasses of claret a day.
As PRONI adds:
‘He carefully records the names of everyone whom he met, and usually gives details of their relationship to each other and to others mentioned elsewhere in his diary. Each day he gives information about meteorological conditions, and on the frequent occasions when illness strikes his wife, one of his twelve children or himself, he details the medical treatments which were applied. ‘During the 1820s and early 1830s, when his brother- in-law, Matthew Fortescue of Stephenstown, Dundalk, and his elder brother, John McClintock Junior of Drumcar, were active as (unsuccessful) candidates in Co. Louth elections, the diary is full of political as well as social, meteorological and medical, comment.’
Harry and Elizabeth had five sons and seven daughters. Their oldest son Louis was a tearaway who ultimately vanished in British Guiana, while the others included Alfred Henry McClintock, Master of the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, and Sir Leopold McClintock, who became one of the greatest Arctic explorers of the Victorian age. Further details follow below.
Harry and Elizabeth’s eldest son George Louis (known as Louis McClintock) was born in 1810 and was the apple of his father’s eye. However, he was a naughty fellow, being “sent down” from Oxford (or Cambridge?) when in debt and later being dispatched to Demerara where he is said to have died young. His cousin William Charles Helden Foster McClintock was on the Reliance sugar plantation in Demerara and is thought to have been connected to this. 
ADMIRAL SIR LEOPOLD McCLINTOCK
‘I can understand how men’s hair have [sic] turned grey.’
Leopold McClintock on the perils of Arctic exploration.
The Arctic explorer Admiral Sir (Francis) Leopold McClintock really deserves a much fuller account than I give here. David Murphy’s book , ‘The Arctic Fox: Francis Leopold McClintock, Discoverer of the Fate of Franklin‘ (Collins Press, 2004) is a very good start but I also include his own memoir as an appendix to this web-page.
He was born at 1-2 Seatown Terrace, Dundalk, Co. Louth, on 8 July 1819, the same year that his father took part in an extraordinary speed test on a velocipede from the Barracks in Dundalk to the Market Square. Leopold’s naval career began at the age of eleven when he boarded HMS Samarang, along with his cousin Captain William McClintock Bunbury, and sailed for South America.
While in Portsmouth, waiting to board the ship, the boy wrote to his mother: ‘My dear mother, I arrived here yesterday safe. I have no more to say but I am alive and kicking like a flea in a blanket, and like it very much. I remain your affectionate son, F L McClintock’.
He would sail on five Arctic voyages, including the famous ‘Fox’ expedition, which found most of the Franklin relics. (The Samarang artist William Smyth recommended Leopold to Sir James Clark Ross as a possible 2nd Lieutenant on the Enterprise.)
Leopold McClintock returned from South America in 1847 and enrolled at the Royal Naval College in Portsmouth. Determined to acquire a thorough knowledge of every branch of his profession, he studied hard to master the various details of nautical science, especially steam navigation which was then in its infancy. After his year at Portsmouth the young Lieutenant went to sea again, but this time in a region far removed from the sunny waters of the Pacific.
For years there had been efforts to find a North West Passage through the Polar Seas, the latest expedition being led by Sir John Franklin. Public anxiety, however, was growing and it was decided to send another expedition to try and find out the fate of Franklin’s ships, and so in 1848 Sir James Ross set out on a rescue voyage, with McClintock as one of his officers. The voyage lasted well into 1849 and proved fruitless, as did McClintock’s second trip under Captain (later Admiral) Austin in 1850-’51. In February 1850, Leopold, first lieutenant of the “Assistance“, was put in charge of sledging.
In 1852 (check), the year his mother died, Leopold was promoted to the rank of Commander, put in charge of the screw-steamer “Intrepid” and again sailed to the Arctic, this time under the leadership of another old Samarang hand, Sir Edward Belcher, C.B. This was the first expedition to reach Melville Sound. During this expedition, McClintock astounded his brother officers by the length of his sledge journeys. He performed the wonderful feat of travelling 1,400 miles across the ice a solo sledge-journey in just over one hundred days, and discovered 800 miles of previously unknown coastline. The polar bear in the Natural History Museum was shot by Captain Leopold McClintock while making his way up Canada’s Baffin Bay in 1852. The polar bear shooting is described in McClintock’s article F.LO. 1857. Reminiscences of Arctic Ice-Travel in search of Sir John Franklin and his companions. J.R. Dublin Soc., 1: 183-238 The Royal Dublin Society passed its collections into the care of the National Museum in 1877.
This expedition met the same fate as the previous ones, and in the autumn of 1854, the four ships were abandoned in the ice as Sir Edward Belcher, his officers and crew sailed home on board the “Phoenix” and the “North Star“. In a letter, written to the Admiralty, from Cork, shortly after his arrival there in 1854, Sir Edward wrote in these positive terms about the fate of Franklin. “I feel satisfied that no reasonable being in this expedition, with brain free from the delusions of interested motives, will venture to suggest that our unfortunate countrymen ever passed Beechey Island after the spring of 1846“. Despite the Admiral’s strongly worded assertion McClintock not only suggested, but also proved that Franklin’s expedition did exactly that which the dictatorial officer considered impossible.
In 1857 he answered Lady Franklin’s call to find her missing husband when he delivered a passionate speech to the Royal Dublin Society:
“It is in our power to rescue the survivors, or, at least, to ascertain their fate, without periling a single life, and at a comparatively trifling expense. That we refuse to do so is a deep national disgrace.”
Although every expedition to discover the fate of Sir John Franklin and his men had failed, Captain McClintock believed that another attempt could prove successful. He maintained that the previous expeditions had taken too northerly a course, and he felt certain that a search in the region of the North Magnetic Pole, as yet untouched, would prove fruitful. The Admiralty, however, did not share his optimism and they rejected his request for another attempt saying that “after so may failures there is no justification to risk the lives of brave men in such a hopeless cause“. Disappointed by the Admiralty rejection, Lady Franklin decided to finance the expedition herself, and with this in mind, she bought Sir Richard Sutton’s screw yacht “Fox“. She offered the command of the proposed expedition to Leopold M’Clintock, who gladly accepted. On 1st July 1857, Captain McClintock duly embarked on board the “Fox“, at request of Lady Franklin, and set forth on his fourth expedition to find Franklin. For this expedition, McClintock had obtained leave of absence but the time occupied was afterwards counted in his service.
The direction he took had been learnt from the Eskimo. Leopold was thoroughly conversant with all the peculiar needs of an Arctic expedition and apart from any financial gain, his whole heart was in the cause. As well as this, he was proud of the discoveries he had made in the Arctic regions of Canada and, as he afterwards wrote “I could not willingly resign to posterity the honour of filling up even the smallest remaining blank upon our maps“. By the winter reached Melville Bay on the north coast of Greenland. Here the ship became locked in the frozen ice and for eight months she drifted southwards, until finally she was released from the ice more than 1,000 miles from Melville Bay, Captain McClintock seized the first opportunity and at once sailed northwards. This enabled McClintock to lay down the unknown northern coastline of Canada, and map King William’s Island. It also enabled him to prove the existence of a channel from Victoria Straits to Melville Sound which is now known as the McClintock Channel. He discovers a collection of Atanerkuerdluk fossil flora on coast of Greenland (adding name “Macclintochia” to the Botanists’ Directory) but no Franklin.
Landing on King William’s Island, the expedition was divided into three sledge trains. One of these explored the estuary of the Fish river, one went onto the nearby Prince of Wales Island, while the third examined the west coast of King William’s Island, where McClintock’s idea that traces of the missing ships would be found, was borne out. At Point Victory, on the north west coast of the island, the expedition found a record of the missing men. The first entry was dated 28 May 1847, and read “Sir John Franklin is commanding the expedition, and all is well“. The diary traced the fate of the expedition from May 1847 to April 1848. It recorded the death of Sir John Franklin on 11th June, 1847. The last entry was dated 25 April, and revealed that:
“the ships were frozen in the ice since 12th September. The officers and crew (105 men) are leaving the ships and starting back along the banks of the Fish river. The total loss by deaths on the expedition so far has been to this date, nine officers and fifteen men“.
Nearby was found a large boat, 28 foot long and 7 foot wide. Portions of two human skeletons were in the boat. There also were five watches and several articles of clothing, some small books and a Bible. Spoons and forks with the crest of Sir John Franklin were also found and, taking these memorials, the expedition set off on the homeward voyage. The “Fox” reached Blackwell deck on 23rd September, 1858. The relics were deposited at the Admiralty where, in McClintock’s words, “they now form a simple and most touching momento of those heroic men who perished in the path of duty, but not before they achieved the purpose of their voyage, the discovery of the “North West Passage“.
Immediately on his return, Captain McClintock reported to the Admiralty the result of his search and the reply acknowledged that he gave the first authentic account of the fate of Sir John Franklin. They also informed him that on the instructions of Queen Victoria, his period of service on the “Fox” was recognized by them as “sea time” thereby giving him considerable seniority.
For more on Sir Leopold’s exploits, be sure to see his own memoir further down this page.
Captain McClintock was given unpaid leave from the Royal Navy for the expedition, as was his 2nd-in-command, Lieut. Wm Hobson. In 1857 they set sail in a small 177-ton steam yacht, the Fox, only to become trapped in ice in Baffin Bay for 6 months during the ensuing winter. They finally reached King William Island in 1858 where Leopold ordered his men to search the perimeters of the island.
They journeyed on winter sledges, variously drawn by men, dogs and an ingenious system of kites and sails, a technique that would lead Leopold McClintock to be hailed as the father of modern sledging. A search party under Hobson’s command discovered the ‘double story’ document in Franklin’s cairn that confirmed his death. McClintock was amply rewarded – a knighthood (1860), a promotion to Rear Admiral, Freedom of the City of London, a channel named in his honour – and later fetched up in command of Portsmouth Dockyard. Lady Franklin gave him a silver model of the Fox and the citizens of Dublin presented him with a remarkable silver claret jug with polar bears clambering up the handles.
On 31 October 1859, Leopold McClintock was the guest of honour at a dinner in Dundalk-Court-house, at which he received a presentation of silver and an address of welcome. Accepting the address, Sir Leopold said that he would ‘cherish it always, more than any other honour, as it comes from the town where I spent my youth, from the friends of my boyhood days, from my home‘. Dublin and London followed suit, and he received the freedom of both cities. Dublin University gave him the honorary degree of L.L.D. and Queen Victoria conferred on him a Knighthood. A more tangible token of the nation’s gratitude was a parliamentary grant of five thousand pounds, awarded at the instigation of Lord Palmerston and Disraeli. His book The Voyage of the “Fox” in the Arctic Seas was also published in 1859. On top of all this a large chunk of the Arctic was named after him, although his vast knowledge of the North West Passage proved worthless to mercantile shipping, especially with the short cut to Asia provided by the opening of the Suez Canal.
The newly elevated Sir Leopold was not a man to rest on his laurels. The use of the recently invented “Electric Telegraph” was spreading and it was decided to lay a cable from Europe to America. The task fell to Sir Leopold who was given command of H.M.S. Bulldog. He plotted a course from the Faroe Islands, through Iceland and Greenland to Labrador. By following this course, it was found that then length of the submarine cable did not exceed five-hundred miles in any one section. In 1870, at the age of 51,
In 2021, he was the subject of ‘McClintock: The Forgotten Explorer,’ a one-hour radio documentary produced for LMFM. That same year, the Northern Ireland based artist Friz painted a fine mural of Sir Leopold on the gable wall of Cathedral Finance on Crowe Street in his hometown of Dundalk.
(I’ll skip his short-lived political career for now!)
He left a mass of specimens and material to the Royal Dublin Society, including a polar bear (complete with bullet hole in the head, much to the horror of my 21st century daughters) and a musk ox mother and calf (shot for provisions while on Melville Island) held by the Natural History Museum in Dublin, and to the Royal Geographical Society. His collection of rocks was espied in the Natural History Collections Research Building at Beggar’s Bush, each wrapped in paper and inscribed with the location where he found it.
In 2013, my father re-read Sir Leopold’s account of his 1859 search for Franklin, having initially read it while writing a paper on the search for the North West Passage at R.N.C. Greenwich some fifty years earlier. During this time, he tuned into a Radio 4 programme “The Life Scientific” in August, 2013, which aroused his curiosity about the ozone layer. As he wrote:
“With hindsight different things catch one’s eye. I have long admired the detailed observations and records all those people kept and this particular expedition surveyed miles of previously uncharted waters. One account astonished me when he recorded that his doctor, named Walker, had been measuring ozone levels. How was he conducting this research and, much more important, why? There is another reference to a small box with a piece of paper in it which was hoisted 50 feet up the mast. But why in 1859 did anyone care about ozone?” 
In February 1884, Sir Leopold was appointed Elder Brother of the Trinity House, the corporation entrusted with ‘the regulation and management of the lighthouses and buoys of the shores and rivers of England,’ which also had a degree of control over both the Scotch Commissioners of Northern Lights and the Irish Ballast Board.
Like many McClintocks, Sir Leopold married late in life. His bride was Annette Elizabeth Dunlop (or Delap, as the name was pronounced in its native Ayrshire in the 16th century), daughter of the Honorable Robert Foster Dunlop of Monasterboice House, Co Louth, a niece of the 10th Viscount Massereene & Ferrard. (Is this Sir Leopold’s “Lady McClintock” on this Pathe News clip?).  In 2013, University College London’s Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership created a database of the individuals who were paid compensation when slavery was finally abolished in the 1830s. Among at least 170 people from Ireland who were compensated was William Drummond Delap / Dunlop of Monasterboice House, son of Robert Delap and Mary Ann Bogle, and brother of Colonel James Bogle Delap and Samuel Francis Delap. WDD’s first wife Catherine Foster was a niece of Speaker John Foster and he himself became Governor of Drogheda Infirmary. He also held some or all of the St James Orange Estate (sugar and rum) in Jamaica, and received £901 in compensation in 1835.  His brother Colonel James Bogle Delap, a friend of George IV, received £4,960. 
Sir Leopold retired from active service after his marriage, taking a position as Aide de Camp to Queen Victoria. In May 1872, he was appointed Admiral Superintendent of the Portsmouth Dockyard, an office he held until 1877.
Sir Leopold died on 17 November, 1907 at his home in London. Most of the people of Dundalk hoped that his final resting place would be in his native place, where he was born, raised and educated, alongside his father in Saint Nicholas Churchyard, but this was not to be. On 20 November, Sir Leopold McClintock was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey, London, with representatives of the King of England and the Prince of Wales at the graveside.
THE CHILDREN OF SIR LEOPOLD McCLINTOCK
Sir Leopold and Annette had three sons and a daughter.
HARRY McCLINTOCK (1871-1959) OF RED HOUSE
Sir Leopold and Annette’s eldest son Major Henry Foster McClintock (1871-1959), known as Harry McClintock, served as a captain in the 24th Middlesex R. V. in his younger years, and was later a Captain and Honorary Major with the 8th (City of London) Battalion, the London Regiment (Post Office). It appears that he was also Assistant Private Secretary to Lord Stanley, the Postmaster-General, in 1906 and he may well have held similar office for considerably longer. He went on to become First Class Clerk of the Secretary’s Office at the General Post Office; on 28 September 1920, he was granted a ‘Retired Allowance’.
Harry became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland in 1926. Though not a frequent contributor to the RSAI’s Journal he wrote for it an article on an “Engraved Bone Plate in the National Museum’ and a short study on a piece of Irish costume, ‘The Mantle of St. Brigid at Bruge’. In 1943 he published ‘Old Irish and Highland Dress, with Notes on That of the Isle of Man’ (Dundalk: Dundalgan Press, 1943), an authoritative work that ran into a number of editions and is still regularly consulted. He was also the author of ‘Old Irish Dress and that of the Isle of Man’, published by Dundalgan Press in 1950.
Harry married Marion Gledstanes, a sister of Ambrose Upton Gledstanes of Fardross, Co. Tyrone and lived at Red House outside Ardee, County Louth. This was a house Edward Lear had visited in the previous century. While they had no children, their nephews, nieces and indeed the next generation of the family have fond memories of growing up at Red House. An inscribed brass plaque by the 17th century Flemish chandeliers hanging in St Peter’s and St Stephen’s Chapels at St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, reveals that they were presented in 1957 by ‘Major H. F. McClintock of Ardee’ and erected by the Society of Friends of the Cathedral. Harry died in March 1959, in his eighty-eighth year.
While working on ‘Dublin Docklands – An Urban Voyage’ in 2007, I met and interviewed the late Gus MacAmhlaigh, who was the first secretary of the Custom House Development Authority (a forerunner of the Dublin Docklands Development Authority). He told me that his mother was Major H. F. McClintock’s cook. Her husband had been in the Irish Guards since 1932 and went on to serve at Tobruk and in the Palestinian Police Force. In about 1940, pregnant with Gus, she took up work for the Major who was then completing his ‘Highland Dress’ book.
When Harry died, he left the house to Marion. She immediately offered it to her nephew Nicky McClintock, son of Colonel Bob McClintock, and his wife Mary. As Bob and Mary were living in Nigeria at the time, and unsure of their future plans, Marion decided she would pass it on to Nicky but stay there herself and pay all the bills. Hence, Bob’s children spent every summer in Ireland between 1962-1969. In July 1969 ‘Aunt Marion’ died and Bob and Mary had to decide what to do. With the Troubles in Northern Ireland brewing up a storm, and a lack of land, they very reluctantly decided to sell. In 1969, the house was sold for £124,000 to Noel Finan, of Seapoint Ballroom, Galway, who planned to convert it into a hotel. It may also have been home to Mrs Heiton [sic], a divorcee lately settled in Ireland. It was later home to Frank Ballam, the Roscommon-born manager of the Ulster Bank in Drogheda, who died in March 1979. Red House was subsequently the childhood home to the beautiful Conolly sisters, Nicky and Joanna (Fennell).
COMMANDER JACK McCLINTOCK OF RED HALL
Sir Leopold’s second son Commander John William McClintock, aka Jack McClintock, served with the Royal Navy under Admirals Carden and de Robeck during the Gallipoli campaign and ‘won honours for his conspicuous bravery and gallant deeds in the recent terrible conflict.’
On 15 January 1920, he was married at Drummaul Church, Randalstown, to the Hon. Rose O’Neill, second daughter of Lord and Lady O’Neill.  Shane’s Castle, her family home, was burned down by Republicans two years later. Archbishop D’Arcy (a former resident of Bishopscourt) headed up the officiating clergymen and Lord Rathdonnell attended, while Captain Harry McClintock, Jack’s older brother, was best man. Dr D’Arcy later recalled it as a ‘specially charming’ day … ‘most delightful in its circumstances and beauty of setting … Shane’s Castle with its splendid demesne, spread out along the shores of Loch Neagh, and its traditional fame; the beautiful church adorned for the occasion; the company of children strewing flowers in the path of the bridal couple: all come back to me as a dream of the past; a touching dream, when it is realised that these two, so happily wedded on that day, enjoyed to brief a union, so far as human feeling can determine.’
In 1927, Jack and Rose Annette bought the Red Hall estate at Ballycarry, near Carrickfergus, County Antrim, where their grandson still lives today. The property had belonged to the Macauley family, who ran Inver Mill, the flour mill in Larne. The house, which sits in its own parkland, dates back to the 16th century while its grounds formed one of the locations for ‘Game of Thrones’. In Jack’s day, Red Hall was famed for having no heating until the summer!
Jack and Rose had three children – (1) Annette, who married Raymond Firth, (2) John, who married Anne ____ and (3) Eithne (who died young.) John and Anne had four children – the present John McClintock of Red Hall (who is in telecommunications and married Irene); Alexander (who married Kathryn and has two daughters, Olivia & Antonia); Catharine (known as Kathy, who married Mr Courtney and is mother of Sarah) and Lulu (or Lucinda, who lives in Aberdeen, Scotland).
COLONEL BOB McCLINTOCK (1876-1968)
Sir Leopold’s third son Robert Singleton McClintock (1876-1968), known as Colonel Bob McClintock served in the Anglo-Boer War as a young man. His granddaughter Sylvia remembers him was in an old photo with Bessie in South Africa at this time. Bob, who was also an accomplished artist, was married firstly to Mary Howard Elphinstone, youngest daughter of Sir Howard Crauford Elphinstone, who won a Victoria Cross during the Crimean War. They were parents to four children, namely:
(i) Lt. John Leopold Elphinstone McClintock, RN (1910-1941). He was blown up by a mine while on convoy duty off Spurn Head on 10 June 1941. He was commanding HMS Pintail. He had gone to aid another ship which had also hit a mine. He is buried in Douglasbanks Cemetery, Rosyth, Fife.
(ii) Ann Arabella McClintock (1915-1986, known as Araby, married Cyril Carter).
(iii) Nicholas Cole McClintock (1916-2001) (aka Nicky), father of:
(a) Sylvia McClintock, who m. Malcom Wright;
(b) Alexander Edward, aka Frank, who had three children by his first wife, Lulu Luckoc, namely Archie, Araby & Alexandra. He is now married to Daniela, an Austrian. They live in Portugal and run the Quinta da Barranco da Estrada.
(c) Michael Leopold Elphinstone (Mike), who has a son Jonathan by his former wife Ann, and is united with Sue Verstage.
(d) Elizabeth Melesina, who married Anthony Loring and has four children, Frances, Josh, Tom and Eddy.
(iv) Patricia Jane (1919-2015), known as Patsy, who married Dr James Cyriax, known as Jimmy, with whom she had two sons, Peter and Oliver.
After the First World War, Bob was an officer on half-pay with limited funds. Having supported his sister’s desire to marry Bernard Greenwell, his loyalty paid out when the Greenwells offered him a plot of land near Godstone in Surrey, where he built a house, Brakey Hill.
At the age of 88, Bob was married, secondly, to Diana Lenox-Conyngham, widow of Lt. Col. Marcus Clements, mother of Marcus and Kate (Lady Hall, formerly Okuno) and grandmother of Charlie, Nat & co. He duly moved to her house in Ravensdale, Co. Louth, and passed away at the age of 92. His granddaughter Sylvia Wright recalls him with a ring of white hair around his head and twinkling blue eyes. My parents stayed with Colonel Bob McClintock soon after their marriage in 1965 and then went up to Anaverna to meet my mother’s Lenox-Conyngham relatives: my father’s cousin Kate Okuno was among them while Dad also knew Vere L-C as they had served together for about six weeks on HMS Belfast in the early 1960s.
ANNIE GREENWELL (1873-1957)
Sir Leopold’s eldest daughter Anna Elizabeth, known as Annie, was born on 3 June 1873. When she sought to marry Major Bernard Eyre Greenwell (1874–1939), a decorated Boer war veteran, Lady McClintock reputedly disapproved because the Greenwells were in ‘trade’. His father Walpole Lloyd Greenwell of Marden Park, Surrey, founded W. Greenwell & Co., one of the wealthiest stock-broking firms in the City of London. In 1906 Walpole was created 1st Baronet Greenwell, of Marden Park in Godstone, by the king; when he died in 1919 his son succeeded as Sir Bernard. Sir Bernard was sometime chairman of the County of London Electric Supply Company Ltd. Annette’s brother Bob McClintock was one of the few who supported her marriage to Bernard, which went ahead on 19 November 1902.
Sir Bernard Greenwell, MBE, died on 28 November 1939 at age 65; his widow Annie (aka, the Dowager Lady Greenwell), died on 22 June 1957. Like her sister Bessie, she suffered from TB, which settled in her bones so that she was practically bed-bound in later life.
Sir Bernard’s son and heir, Sir Peter McClintock Greenwell (1914-78) often slept outside in a tent as a child, because his parents were so afraid that he might catch TB. He married Henrietta Rose Haig-Thomas, known as Grundy, who I recall meeting as child because she had a tremendous sense of fun and once sent the salt pot whizzing down the dining table towards me.
Sir Peter was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Edward Greenwell, who married, firstly, Sarah Anley, and secondly, after Sarah’s passing, (Daphne) Clare de Courcy Hunter. Sir Edward’s brother, Major James Peter Greenwell, married Serena Jane Dalrymple, while their sister Julia married Alexander Trotter, 14th of Mortonhall and 5th of Charterhall, with whom she had three sons, Henry, Edward and Rupert Trotter.
BESSIE McCLINTOCK (1882-1913)
Sir Leopold’s youngest daughter Elizabeth Florence Mary, known as Bessie, was born on 18 August 1882. She and her sister Annie were sent to South Africa in the early 1900s to escape the winters in England. It seems likely they stayed with the family of Sir Leopold’s brother Theodore (see below). Bessie died of TB on 3 March 1913 at 16, Queensbery Place, South Kensington. 
DR ALFRED McCLINTOCK (1821-1881)
Alfred Henry McClintock, MD, LL.D, FRCSP, third son of Harry and Elizabeth, was Master of the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, and President of the Royal College of Surgeons. He wrote several treatises on the rise of Midwifery in Dublin. Born on 21 October 1821, he was educated under Dr Bunker at Louth Infirmary in Dundalk, and then went to Dublin where he entered the Park Street School of Medicine. He became a licentiate of Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, in 1844 in which year he received his doctorate from the University of Glasgow. He subsequently studied in Paris. On the advice of his teacher, Charles Johnson (1795-1866), then director of the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, he concentrated his efforts in obstetrics and gynaecology.
He subsequently became an assistant to Johnson in the hospital, and with his colleague Dr Samuel Little Hardy (1815-1868) published a report on the hospital entitled: Practical Observations on Midwifery. In 1851 McClintock became a Licentiate of the King and Queen’s College of Physicians (Ireland). From 1854 to 1861 he held the position of head physician at Rotunda Hospital Dublin. As President of the Dublin Obstetrical Society, Alfred gave an address on ‘The Rise of the Dublin School of Midwifery’ – which, of course, included an account of Bartholomew Mosse – that was published in The Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science of 1 Feb 1858.
He was created an Honorary Fellow of the American Gynaecological & Obstetrical, Society 1881.
Alfred died of apoplexy at his Merrion Square residence on 21 October 1881, his 60th birthday. His obituary in the Illustrated London News on Saturday 29 October 1881 read:
‘McCLINTOCK. Alfred Henry McClintock, M.D., LL.D., ex-President of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, died at his residence, Merrion-square, Dublin, on the 21st inst., on his sixtieth birthday. This distinguished physician was the next youngest brother of Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Leopold McClintock, the Arctic explorer, and second son of the late Mr. Henry McClintock, of Dundalk, by Elizabeth-Melesina, his wife, daughter of the Ven. George Fleury, D.D., Archdeacon of Waterford. He was consequently a cousin of the first Lord Rathdonnell. Dr. McClintock married, on May 2, 1848, Fanny, daughter of John Loftus Cuppaidge, Esq., nephew of the first Viscount Castlemaine, and leaves issue.’
Alfred was married on 2 May 1848 to Fanny Cuppaidge, daughter of John Loftus Cuppaidge. See here. Leopold often stayed with Alfred when he was on leave, and they were reputedly best pals; their elderly mother was also living in Dublin at that time.
On 20 February 1864 Alfred received a letter from his first cousin George McClintock (b. 1822), which provided a date of 12 August 1769 as a birthday for their great-uncle John ‘Old Turnip’ McClintock, and also referred to Alfred’s sister Louisa Tipping.
Alfred and Fanny were the parents of:
- Elizabeth Florence McClintock (b. 11 Feb 1849)
- Katherine Elizabeth McClintock (b. 3 Jun 1851)
- Major Leopold Alfred McClintock (7 Sep 1853-19 Feb 1933), the eldest son, was a Major in the Royal Horse Artillery. On 1 March 1881, he married Jane Bunbury Moore, daughter of John Louis Moore, who died at Bellary, Madras, two years later, leaving two small girls Patience McClintock (b. 1882) and Jane Bunbury McClintock (1884-1939).
- Frances Edith McClintock (b. 16 Feb 1856)
- (James) Frederick Foster McClintock (b. 27 Mar 1858, d. 4 Nov 1920), Trinity College M.A., Land Agent, lived at Rath House, Termonfeckin, Co. Louth, close to his McClintock cousins at Newtown House. I am told there’s a good ghost story connected to Rath House, something to do with horse hoof imprints on the steps. Frederick married Clara Elizabeth Charlotte Adams (daughter of Ambrose Going Adams and Anne Jane Foster Deering) and was father of four, two sons and two daughters. At the time of the 1901 Census, they resided at 20 Wellington Road, Pembroke West (Ballsbridge), Dublin, along with their ‘nurse’ Letitia Somers (John Jones’s paternal great-aunt), who may have been a ‘Wet Nurse’ as their son, Geoffery, was just under one-year old at the time or perhaps she was the children’s nurse/nanny as their daughter, Melesina Fleury, was about seven years old. (Thank you Maria O’Brien!) Their children were:
- Melesina Fleury, b 1894. d. date unknown. Married Ernest Agustus Phipps of Fermoy. No issue.
- Geoffrey, Commander, Royal Canadian Navy, b 6 April 1900, enrolled in navy in 1916, died 17 April 1970 in Vancouver, Canada. No issue.  He came to Dublin on a visit in the 1960’s. Who was the Geoffrey McClintock who served as a Midshipman on HMS Centurian and apparently died on 15 April 1916?
- Fanny. b 1902. d – date unknown. Married Henry Holmer Peard. They managed Phoenix Park Racecourse, Dublin. No issue.
- Alfred Foster (1911- 2002), educated Portora, served in WW2 as Captain 8th King’s Royal Irish Hussars 1940-45. Served at El Alamein and D-day and worked in the oil industry for Esso (Belfast) and later Jet (Dublin). Married Margaret Scott Thompson, Towcester, Northants in 1941, with whom he had two children, viz.
i. Patricia Fay. Born 1942. Served in the WRENS. Married Mr Hepworth and is mother to Chantal Jackson and Michelle Woolfenden
ii. Patrick Foster, aka Paddy McClintock (1944-2018) was born in Northampton. As he put it in an email to me shortly before his death in 2018, he ‘was given a Reserved Cadetship to R.N. Dartmouth (out of Portora) but rejected it in favour of show-biz … joined Telifis shortly after it opened, directed ‘Seven Days‘ just before he left in the early 70’s, and went free-lance – jobbing for many years usually as Producer or Director.’ Paddy was also the only Irishman to successfully compete in three marathon car rallies – the 1968 London to Sydney, the 1993 London to Sydney 25th and the 1995 London to Mexico. The London to Sydney was 10,000 mile! ‘I prefer dry land!’ In later life, Paddy lived at Midhurst, West Sussex. He died after a fall in Chichester in December 2018. See his obituary here.
In 1956, Rath House was sold to Michael Eric Dillon, 20th Viscount Dillon, who moved there from Clifden, Co. Galway, with his wife, Irene, a native of Mauritius. Educated at Eton and the Sandhurst Military College, Lord Dillon served with the Hussars and the Transjordan Frontier Force. He was a knight of the Order of Malta and an officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands). He died at Rath House in December 1979, aged 68. He had four sons Charles (21st Viscount Dillon, who died in 1982), Richard, Michael (the muralist) and Patrick, as well as four daughters, Rosaleen, Isobel, Iris and Madeleine.
6. Caroline Florence McClintock (1867-1927), who was born on 13 January 1867 and married Major Sir William Brady, 4th Bart. His grandfather, the first baronet, the Right Hon. Maguire Brady, was an eminent Irish lawyer, being Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer (1840-46), and thrice Lord Chancellor of Ireland (1846-52, 1853-58, 1859-66). The second baronet, his uncle, Sir Francis William Brady, was County Court Judge of Tyrone for 26 years and died in 1909. Colonel Sir Robert Maziere Brady, Sir William’s brother, also died in 1909, which is when Sir William succeeded. Formerly an officer in the 1st Battalion York and Lancaster Regiment, Sir William was later a major in the Reserve of Officers. Caroline Florence Brady died on 20 January 1927, and Sir William passed away in Blackrock, County Dublin, that April. They were survived by his daughter, Ethne Florence Brady, and left no heir to the baronetcy. (Larne Times, 23 April 1927.) With thanks to Tom Halligan.
COLONEL THEODORE McCLINTOCK (1829-1900)
Lt. Col. Theodore Ernest McClintock (1829-1900), fourth son of Harry and Elizabeth, was born on 9 March 1829 and married on 5 November 1863 to Anna Maria Holden (1846-1899, born at the Cape). He served in the Commissariat Department for at least thirty years, starting as a clerk in 1850 and rising to be Assistant-Commissaries-General in 1860 and Staff Paymaster in 1869.  In the latter year, the officers of the hitherto uniformed civilian service transferred to the new Control Department as commissioned Army officers and Theodore duly became part of the Army Pay Department.
He retired in 1881 with the honorary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. In the “Major General’s Song” in The Pirates of Penzance (1880) by Gilbert and Sullivan, the Major-General boasts that when, among many other bits and pieces of seemingly elementary or irrelevant information, he “know(s) precisely what is meant by commissariat”, he will be the best officer the army has ever seen (satirizing 19th century British officers’ lack of concrete military knowledge).
Theodore and Anna had 3 children, Frederick William McClintock  (born in Capetown in 1864); Edgar Stanley Victor McClintock (1865-1931) and Agnes Laura McClintock (born at the Cape in 1867).
CAPTAIN F. W. McCLINTOCK
Captain Frederick William McClintock, the eldest son of Lieutenant Colonel Theodore E McClintock, was born in Dublin on 10 August 1864 and educated at the Public High School, Dublin. He proceeded to South Africa aged 21, joining the Education Department of the Natal Civil Service. He subsequently took up an appointment in the Cape Forestry Department; went to the Transvaal in 1895, where he acted as Secretary to some mining groups, and became identified with the Krugersdorp branch of the Anti-Asiatic South Africa League under the presidency of diamond tycoon Sir Abe Bailey, Member of Parliament for Krugersdorp and spokesman for respectable English-speaking South Africans.
At the outbreak of the Anglo-Boer War he joined the Prince Alfred’s Guards as Second Lieutenant, ‘this being the only permanent Colonial Corps which is entitled to carry its colours into action—a privilege obtained for the regiment by Duke of Edinburgh, after whom it is named.’ At the close of hostilities, he retired with the permanent rank of Captain, in recognition of services rendered during the war. He then returned to the Transvaal, where he was ‘engaged in secretarial duties in connection with the Commission investigating Burgher Claims upon the Imperial Government, ultimately taking up an appointment in the Mines Department, of the Transvaal Civil Service.’ He was the author of “Hints: A Handbook for South African Volunteers”.
On 10 August 1896, he married 24-year-old Florence Louisa Soundy, daughter of Josiah Tunmer Soundy (1829-1906), of Cradock, Cape Colony. They are thought to have been the parents of Ernest McClintock (died 1960) who married Ethel Bingham (born 1899, daughter of James Bingham (1861-1936) and his wife Charlotte (nee Miller) of Belfast) and had three children – June, Ronald Victor McClintock (1926-2015, born in South Africa) and Robert. 
Edgar Stanley Victor McClintock (1865-1931), Colonel Theodore McClintock’s second son, was born at the Cape on 18 September 1865 and died in Victoria, British Colombia. He was married on 19 April 1898 to Augusta Julia Inskip, daughter of H. L. Inskip. Their only son, Leopold Digby McClintock was born in Vernon, BC, on 7 April 1899 and died in Victoria, BC, in 1978.
AGNES WATHEN COURT
Col Theodore McClintock’s daughter, Agnes Laura (1867-1916) married Lt. Col Henry Wathen Court (1865-1947), son of Philip Wathen Court, from an old Worcestershire family. Henry attended St. Andrews College, Grahamstown, South Africa  and then moved into banking (P.W. Court till sole proprietor P.W. Court & Co. P.E.; closed down 1914). He also had a military career, serving as a captain in the Langeberg campaign, being a Captain in 1897, a Lt. Col. of the P.A.G. in 1899 and serving as a Lt Col and Major in the Anglo-Boer War and Great War, latterly with the Gloucester Regt. He was commanding the 3rd Infantry Regiment of the South West African Expeditionary Force when the war broke out in 1914. He was based at General Headquarters Staff, The Curragh, in June 1918. 
The Wathen Court’s eldest son Capt. Eric McClintock Wathen Court (1890-1916) was also at St Andrew’s College, and served as a Beacon Inspector with the Department of Mines at Salisbury, Rhodesia (aka, Harare, Zimbabwe). He went missing in the Gallipoli campaign in August 1915 and was reported killed the following year.
Agnes and Henry’s youngest son Lt. Col. Conrad Vaisey Wathen Court served in the South West African Expeditionary Force, being attached to the 3rd Infantry Regiment, before going to France in the Great War. He was gassed in about September 1917, and was slightly wounded in the spring of 1918, but continued on duty. He was awarded the MC (1918) for gallantry as Brigade Signal Officer, 24th Infantry Brigade, and won a Bar on the Somme, still as Brigade Signalling Officer, in 1918. (Bill). He was wounded eight times in total.He married a Meta J Biggar in 1926 in Kensington, London, and died in December 1964. See more on him, including photo, here.
Agnes and Henry’s older daughter Vera Faye Court, b. 1886, married Fred Baker.
Agnes and Henry’s younger daughter Aileen Vivienne (1890-1963) was married twice, firstly in 1911 to Leslie Maunsell Hunt, the Castlecomer-born son of banker Aubrey de Vere Hunt and Emily Foott. (In the 1901 census, the Hunt family were living at Parliament Street, Ennistymon, Co. Clare.) They had one son, Eric Pfeilitizer Hunt (1911-2007). Leslie was a Lance Corporal in the South African Infantry when he died in March 1918 at Pozieres, France, aged 38. She was married secondly in 1920 to Harold Pawson Pope, who died in South Africa in 1944. She lived at 247, Main Street, Muckleneuk, Pretoria, and died in South Africa in 1963.
Sylvia Wright (née McClintock) recalls her mother telling her that when Sir Leopold’s youngest daughter Bessie was ill with TB, she and Aunt Annie (Greenwell) were sent to South Africa in the late 1800s for two consecutive winters to stayed with some McClintock cousins – could this have been Theodore Ernest’s family?
CHARLES McCLINTOCK, R.I.C. (1836-1907)
Charles Fortescue McClintock, Royal Irish Constabulary (1836-1907), fifth and youngest son of Harry and Elizabeth. Born at Drumcar on 13 June 1836, he entered the Civil Service; first serving in the Crimea (his Crimean medals awards are mentioned on his Civil Service record of service) and then as a staff member (civilian clerk) of the Royal Irish Constabulary Office in Dublin Castle, rising to a senior position in the Administrative Division. In 1887 he was recorded as First Class Clerk (under Alfred Crawford) in the Administrative Branch of the R.I.C. Office in Dublin Castle. He retired on pension on reaching his 65th birthday. He was awarded a ‘Visit to Ireland’ medal as part of Queen Victoria’s visit in 1900 and may well have been presented to her.
Charles and his wife Mary, a Catholic from Dublin twelve years his junior, were living at 13 Breffni Terrace, Glasthule, Dublin, at the time of the 1901 Census, along with Kate Kane, a 19-year-old Longford girl who was employed as their cook and domestic servant. Charles died on 19 December 1907 at Silverton Cottage, Dalkey. 
ISABELLA MARION McCLINTOCK
Isabella Marion McClintock, eldest daughter of of Harry and Elizabeth, married (1) T. Shallcross Battersby (who died 17 March 1847) and (2) E. Spencer Dix, MA. Her sister Emma Patience also married a Dix brother, see below.
LOUISA TIPPING (1814-1900)
(Anna) Louisa (de Fleury) McClintock, the second of Harry and Elizabeth’s daughters was married in 1832 to Francis Hall Tipping, with whom she later emigrated to New Zealand.
As their great-great-grandson Paul Tipping relates in his 2005 book “The Tippings of Canterbury – The Story of Two Anglo-Irish families”, Francis was one of twin boys born on 8 October 1804 to Francis Tipping (1758-1819) and his wife Christina Fforde (1765-1855). He grew up at Bellurgan Park, a 2,000-acre estate with a Georgian house near the village of Ballymacanlon, County Louth. On the watch of his extravagant, travel-obsessed elder brother, Edward, the estate was almost bankrupted during the Famine and had dwindled to 1245 acres by 1876.
Francis and his twin brother James were educated at the Royal School in Armagh. In 1822, 18-year-old Francis went to Trinity College Dublin, graduating with a BA (1829) and MA (1832), and he appears to have been destined for a career in the Church of Ireland. In 1827 James married Catherine Elizabeth Fforde, a cousin, and settled at Castletown Cooley where they had 10 children. Five years later, 27-year-old Francis called in on Henry McClintock, who wrote in his diary on 13 July 1832:
“Francis Tipping proposed for my daughter Louisa last night, and she referred him to me, so this day he called to speak to me upon the subject. Bessy and I gave our consent to their being married but not for some months or until he is ordained.”
Francis was ordained a deacon soon afterwards and he married Louisa McClintock in Saint Nicholas’s Church, Dundalk, on 18 September 1832, just two months after he secured her parents’ consent. As it happens, the 27-year-old did not pursue his church career, aside from a visit to Dungannon to enquire about a curacy in June 1833, as recorded in his father-in-law’s diary. Instead, he began farming, initially on 75 acres leased from Lady Bellingham at Draughanstown, near Dunany, on the coast just south of Dundalk. Their first child Melesina, known as Minnie, was born on 11 August 1833. Two more children were born at Draughanstown before the Tippings moved in March 1838 to a 103-acre farm at Kilcreagh, near Donabate, Co Dublin. They spent the next 14 years at Kilcreagh, during which time another six children were born while Francis’s elder brother Edward nearly lost the family estate during the Great Hunger crisis.
In 1852 Francis and Louisa moved to a third farm, Mulgeeth, near Enfield, on the Meath-Kildare border. A further two daughters were born here, so that the family now comprised of nine daughters and two sons. On 11 October 1861 the Tippings moved once again, taking on a substantial three-story house with 93 acres at Viewmount, near Longford town, which they least from the Earl of Longford. However, all was to change the next year when Francis’s twin brother James left for to Canterbury Province in New Zealand with his entire family, departing from London on 4 September 1862. On 10 September 1863, a year after his twin brother James’s emigration, Francis and Louisa set sail for New Zealand with their nine children. They arrive in Lyttleton 96 days later. Francis established himself as a farmer in the Waikuku district north of Kaiapoi, about 25km from James.
On 10 November 1864, their daughter Minnie Tipping married William Bayly Jones, a ship’s purser from Gloucestershire. Her sister Laura was married on the same day to Arthur James Poole.  Mininie and William were fated to be among 131 drowned when SS Tararua, a passenger steamer, sank off the New Zealand coast on a voyage between Port Chalmers and Tasmania. It was the worst civilian shipping disaster in New Zealand’s history.
Francis Tipping died, aged 70, in New Zealand on 3 March 1875. His widow Louisa survived him by quarter of a century, dying on 29 July 1900, aged 86. She is buried at Holy Trinity Church, Christchurch, New Zealand. She had 11 children 35 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren.
Emily Caroline McClintock, third daughter of Harry and Elizabeth, was married, firstly, in 1840 to Captain Charles Henry Paget, RN, of Samarang fame, and (2) 1848 Lt. Col. J. B. Gardiner, 17th Regiment. Nicky McClintock owned a set of six volumes of the “Lives of the Admirals” each of which carries the same inscription on the fly-leaf: “From Charlie Paget, late Captain of the old Samarang to his friend and ship-mate Francis Leopold McClintock, May 19th 1842 at 5 hrs 10 m a.m.” I have yet to discover the significance of that particular moment.
ROSE MELESINA RICHARDSON
Rosa Melesina McClintock, fourth daughter of Harry and Elizabeth, was married on 18th April 1848 at St. George’s Church, Dublin, to Dr Benjamin Willis Richardson of Upper Gardener Street. He became chairman of the Court of Examiners at the Royal College of Surgeons. They lived in a house which is now part of the Castle Hotel, off Parnell Square, Dublin, owned in 2014 by Fionn MacCumhaill who has conducted some research on the buildings history. 
FLORENCE GERTRUDE ALLOWAY
Florence Gertrude McClintock was the fifth daughter of Harry and Elizabeth. On 8 December 1847, she was married at St George’s Church, Dublin, to Dr George H. Alloway (d. 1881). of 2 Gardiner’s Place, Dublin. Her brother Leopold stood as witness for her husband, while Alfred McClintock was witness for his sister. The Rev. Charles M. Fleury (uncle to the bride) officiated.
George was the third son of William Johnson Alloway, of the Derries, Queen’s County (now Laois), who had died before their wedding.  George worked in Sydney for nearly 23 years and, according to his obituary, was a President Of the Medical Board for Visiting Asylums. Between 1867 and 1870, he spent three years in Europe for nearly three years, after which he embarked on an unprofitable cotton growing venture in Fiji.  He then returned to practice, but a severe attack of paralysis caused his retirement to England, where he lingered in until his death in 1881. He was survived by his widow and a daughter, who is in England.
In 1878 George’s nephew William Forbes Alloway married Elizabeth MacLaren (1853-1926).
EMILY PATIENCE DIX
Emily Patience, sixth daughter of Harry and Elizabeth, was married in 1854 to Henry Torrens Dix. (Her sister Isabella Marion also married a Dix brother.) Their son Ernest Reginald McClintock Dix (1857-1936), a Man of Letters and an expert on Irish printing, was interested in Early Irish printing, bibliography, book collecting, Irish history, Irish language and printing history. When I was working on the history of the Dublin Docklands, Gus MacAmhlaigh, whose mother was cook to Major Henry Stanley McClintock, told me that H. Ernest Reginald McClintock Dix was a bibliophile whose book on Irish language books is the holy bible for a subject which Gus and his son were greatly enamoured. Ernest’s collection included a large number of novels translated into Irish such as Wuthering Heights and The Hound of the Baskervilles.
Ernest was married, late in life, to Elizabeth Mary Rachael Leech, aka “Brenda”… “Brenda” was the nom-de-plume of Úna McClintock Dix [née Elizabeth Rachel Leech; 1880-1958), one of the few Irish language women authors of the Free State era and author of Cailín na Gruaige Duinne [The Brown Haired Girl] (1932) published by An Gúm; she was educated in Neuchatal, Switzerland and Alexandra College, Dublin and emigrated to Canada, where she taught German and English immigrants, and met Ernest on her return to Ireland. 
EMILY ANNA CROZIER
Emily Anna McClintock, the seventh daughter of Harry and Elizabeth, was married in 1857 to George Crozier, MA, son of William and Jane Crozier, who died in 1874. I am struggling to find confirmation of this marriage. George was a nephew of Francis Crozier (1796-1848) who disappeared with Sir John Franklin in the Arctic and whose sad fate was thus discovered shortly after George’s marriage … by his bride’s older brother Leopold McClintock.
With thanks to Sylvia Wright (nee McClintock), Irene McClintock, Brian Walsh (Co. Louth Museum), Michael Smith, Gayle Eckhardt, William Bunbury, Andrew Bunbury, Olive Brown, Tom Barr, Liesa Eckhardt (Gayle’s daughter) and the McFarlands.
Appendix: Recollections Sir Francis Leopold McClintock 1819-1907
This fragment is transcribed from an old typescript headed, in his son’ s Bob or Harry’ s handwriting:
Some early recollections taken down by his daughter Bessy a few years before his death.
[Sir Leopold had serious problems with his vision in his later years and much of his correspondence was dictated to his daughters from 1900 onwards. This Editorial comment, and others, in italics, are put in by Christina Casement, 2007, greatly aided by the diary of Sir Leopold’s daughter, Anna Greenwell, by family letters kindly made available by Mrs Pamela McClintock, and by Patrick O’Neill’s transcription of THE JOURNAL OF HENRY McCLINTOCK, 1783-1843, published 2001 with the kind permission of the late John McClintock.]
I was born on July 8th 1819 in 1 Seatown Place, Dundalk, directly opposite to Brown’s Pump and the Castle. The first thing I remember was the birth of my sister Rosa [he was then aged nearly 4]. I went first to a Dame’s school which was then kept by the Rev. John Darley, afterwards Bishop of Meath.
One of the earliest things I can remember was when as a small boy of eight or nine I was walking near the sea shore, and in reaching out to catch a little crab, I fell into the water. I suppose that my Father did not see me, and that I must have been nearly drowned, for I remember struggling in the water and then a sensation of pleasant dreams. [Possibly an incident recorded by his father, 18 June 1827]
As a child I always wished to be a sailor, and my earliest desire to go to sea was the result of three circumstances:
- My cousin William Bunbury was a sailor
- Because of a print of Admiral Cranfield Berkeley in uniform which was hung in my Father’s dressing-room.
- Because I had been told that a knowledge of Latin was not required in the Navy.
As a matter of fact, no examination whatever was held in the Navy at that time.
On June 20th 1831 a letter came from Lieut. Bunbury McClintock offering me a midshipman’s berth in the “Samarang”, and the same evening at 8pm I started in the Mail coach “Lark” under charge of Mr Perkins, tide-waiter under my Father in the Dundalk Customs House. My outfit consisted of three pair of drill trousers, and six of duck, and twelve shirts, and my ordinary clothes, but my most valued possessions were a bag of marbles and a bottle into which I had squeezed some apple juice. When on board the “Samarang” Naval buttons were put onto my jacket which was then considered sufficient attempt at uniform.
On the afternoon of the day I left home, I remember being put to bed, and the blinds pulled down and being told to go to sleep, but of course my excitement was too great to let me sleep.
[Leo’s Father, Henry’s diary entries for these days show how hard it was to part with him:
Sunday 12th June 1831 … Bessy and I went to church & took with us Marianne, Louisa, Caroline, Leopold & Alfred – I received a letter from my nephew Lieut. Wm. Bunbury McClintock of the Navy offering my son Leopold a berth on board his ship the “Samarang” lying at Portsmouth, which offer we mean to accept and hope Leopold may soon be appointed a midshipman …
[Besides the children mentioned above, the family also included Rosamond, Florence, Ernest, and Emma, not yet weaned. Emily and Charles were yet to be born. And there was also the eldest, Louis, then aged 21, on whom a good deal of the family’ s slender resources had been spent – he had been sent down from Cambridge, and in Jan 1831 had gone to Demerara: he had recently written cheerfully, as an overseer on the estate of Mr Laurence Fitzgerald. So the chance of a career for Leo must have been hard to resist. In the 8 days, before William’ s second letter, Henry kept Leo close to him, walking, fishing etc.] Then:
Monday 20th June 1831. … Leopold bathed before breakfast with Billy Killien near the Point, I walked with him & on our return home I received a letter from my nephew Lieut. Wm. B.McClintock of the “Samarang” at Portsmouth, desiring me to send Leopold off to him without any delay as he had secured a berth for him on board – so at half past eleven at night I put him into the mail coach for Dublin & sent a trusty man (Thos. Perkins) with him who is to go to Portsmouth & give Leopold to my nephew on board the “Samarang” – I of course pay Perkins’ expenses – we dined at home – I went to Henry Parker’ s (where I was to have dined) in the evening for a short time – we are all sadly grieved at poor Leopold’ s departure – however, his taste has always been for the Navy & he goes out under excellent auspices – Captain Charles Paget is the captain of the “Samarang” & my nephew Wm. the lieutenant – God Almighty bless my poor Leopold, he was only eleven years old the eight of last July.
Tuesday 21st … I remained at home all day being in very low spirits after my poor dear boy
Leopold – we dined at home.
[Perkins returned on June 28th, bringing notes from Leo, William, and his own good report of leaving Leo on board, safe and well. The long letter written on Leo’ s 12th birthday reached his parents on 12 July and gave great joy. We know that it was carefully preserved in the family, and doubtless still is.]
Mr Perkins and I reached the G.P.O Dublin at 6 am the next morning (June 21st) and embarked on board the steamer “Express” for Bristol. I was not really sea-sick, but watched the bubbles going astern till I found myself feeling so giddy and queer that I was glad to go and lie down. After a voyage of about 25 hours we reached Bristol and then started by coach for Portsmouth which took us eight or ten hours more. Then I was taken on board the hulk in which the crew of the “Samarang” were living.
Lieut. McClintock was on shore dining with his brother, and when he came on board and went to look for me in my berth, I was so small that he said it was like looking for a flea in a blanket. “Why didn’t they send a nurse with that baby?” he added. Later on I was weighed against his black Newfoundland dog “Sky” and weighed 68 pounds, beating the dog by two pounds. My height was four feet six inches. The Captain was known as “Big Paddy” and I as “Little Paddy”.
Mr Perkins left me next morning, after having delivered me over into the Captain’s charge with the following parting injunction, “Goodbye Master Leopold, and never turn your back on the enemy while you’ve a face to face him with”. About which I was much teased.
When the “Samarang” was ready, we sailed out of the harbour to Spithead one morning early and saluted the Admiral’s Flag with the customary guns, but being a sound sleeper I slept through the whole of it, and when I came on deck was much astonished to find that the familiar surroundings were gone.
My rank was a Volunteer of the First Class, which corresponds with the Naval Cadet of today, and at first I had no regular duty to do on board, but afterwards I was put on day duty but excused all night-work, and indeed all the officers were very kind to me. Jack Davis was one of them. One day Captain Paget said to me “Little Paddy, have you got a little sister with eyes like yours? for if so I would like to marry her.” He subsequently did marry my sister Caroline.
My first letter home was dated on my 12th birthday, in which I requested them to send me some more “Jack coats”, and signed myself, “the happy Francis Leopold McClintock.”
The Samarang was a twenty eight gun frigate, 500 tons burden. There were no steamers in the Service then. She had a crew (including me) of 160. On the lower deck she was only 4ft.9ins. high under the beams. The length of the gun deck was 113 feet. She remained in commission on the South American Station (which then included both sea-boards of South America) for three years and eight months.
Our food consisted of the usual ship’s allowance, a good deal of Salt Junk. The meal hours in the gun-room where the midshipmen lived, were breakfast at 8 o’clock, chocolate or tea with some meat, dinner at 12. On Sundays and Thursdays we had puddings, plum duff, as second course. Tea at 5 o’clock. Supper at 8 o’clock usually, cold meat and grog. I did not like the latter and never took it. At sea the meat was either salt beef or pork, and in harbour we usually had fresh beef or mutton, and the plum duff gave way to fruit tarts. The dinners in the tropics were something to remember, all of us sitting round in our shirt sleeves, devouring a smoking hot pumpkin pie. Lights were put out at 10 o’clock. The Captain used to set aside little stores of sweets or any special delicacy from his table, and would send for me to come and gobble them up. He was then 26 years old. The First Lieut. was William Bunbury McClintock, aged 32. The former was made a Captain at 23, and the latter a Commander at 36, promotion being due to influence in the Service at this time.
During the Samarang’s commission I was employed as a boat-midshipman, and the Captain frequently took me with him when he went shooting in the Bay of California staying away sometimes a night or two at a time. He gave me a beautiful little pea-rifle which I still have.
The serjeant of Marines was my servant, and prevented me from muddling my clothes or getting at them, by sleeping on top of my chest. The other midshipmen called him my “Papa” which made me very angry. One of the seamen, Midgely, a Collon man, served twice 21 years in the Service, and so earned two pensions; he then commenced a third 21 years, but had to leave the Service without completing them.
In 1832, I was one day amusing myself by climbing about aloft when the ship was at anchor at Bahia in Brazil. I was close up under the main-top, and tried to come down by single rope; the one I got hold of was unfortunately the top-gallant-yard rope which was stopped out, my weight was sufficient to break the stop, and I could not prevent the rope from running through my hands and burning them so that I was obliged to let go altogether, but luckily I fell (about 50 or 60 feet) on my hind quarters on to a coil of rope, so no bones broken, nor serious hurt sustained except that my paws were a little burnt, but I was not at all put out by it.
It was at Bahia, bathing with the officers, that I learnt to swim. I would jump out of the boat and they would stay round ready to pick me up if necessary.
Owing to naval influence being all-powerful for promotion in the Service, there were many elderly first lieutenants who, owing to lack of influence, never expect to become Captains, and when a very young Captain was given a ship, one of these older and steadier men were often appointed their First Lieutenant to act at their “dry nurse” as it was usually called. It took us about fifty days in the Samarang to get from Portsmouth to Rio, touching at St Michael (Azores) on the way.
The Samarang was paid off at Portsmouth in January 1835, and then I went home for about four months, at the end of which time I was appointed as midshipman with pay of £32 per annum, to the “Carron”, a steamer employed in surveying chiefly round the Isle of Man. She was commanded by Commander Edward Belcher, and I was the only midshipman on board and was given day duty, which lasted from daylight (2am in the summer) to 9 at night. We were paid off at Woolwich in the November of that year 1835, and I look back on her Commission as an arduous and rough time.
[Henry McClintock’ s Journal again:
Friday 30th January 1835: – my son Leopold came home to us after an absence of three years & seven months … he has grown tall, is very thin & in good health thank God. Next day: … Leopold, Alfred & I walked down the Long Avenue and Leopold shot a few birds with my double barrelled gun – I fired with his rifle (given to him by Captain Chas. Paget who commanded the Samarang all the time Leopld was in her) at a mark and hit it … 14 February … Leopold has Mr John Reid to attend him three times a week to instruct him in Decimal Fractions, Euclid &c &c.
[Leo also attended church with his parents and received the Sacrament for the first time] After about another four months at home, I was appointed to the “Hercules”. In those days at the end of a commission the officers were paid off, discharged altogether and interest was required to get them another appointment. The Hercules was a 74-gun ship, Captain the Hon. M.F.Berkeley, afterwards Lord FitzHarding. She was employed in the Channel Squadron under Admiral the Hon. Sir Charles Paget, father of the Captain Paget of the Samarang. During my time at home after the paying-off of the Samarang and before I joined the “Carron”, I used to go out shooting, and fishing in the River Fane with my father. Once I went out shooting alone, and while standing with my gun resting on the ground it went off badly scorching my right cheek and filling it with grains of powder. The accident happened about a mile from the house, and I went home alone, very frightened and unable to see out of my right eye. I remember I went straight to my Mother before I would let anyone else see my face. In three or four days I believe I was practically right again.
[But in the 1902 diary of his daughter Annie that long-ago accident was mentioned as possibly contributing to his eye troubles. His father reports it thus:]
26th May 1835. … Leopold took our Alfred’ s gun & my black pointer Grouse to shoot landrales [Ed: sic, rails now called corncrakes] & while just going to cross a ditch in one of the little meadows between Ladywell & the Long Avenue the gun went off (the butt of it resting on the ground) & was very near killing him on the spot – it does not appear that any of the shot touched him but his right eye, ear & cheek suffered a good deal from the explosion – his eyebrow & eye lashes are burned with the gun powder – he walked home & Bessy kept a constant application for three or four hours of very cold poultices of bread & water to his eye & ear – the poultices were changed every two or three minutes and fresh water got from the pump – these cold applications allayed the inflammation very much & Leopold came to the drawing room in the evening – Mr Parks (our Apothecary) saw him twice, ordered some medicine & said he did not consider it necessary for Doctor Brunker to see him at present ….
[Ed: he could not see much out of either eye next day, but was said to be going on well, and was off on the stage coach six days later].
Another day I climbed the Dundalk Church Steeple to explore it, and found it to be somewhat out of the perpendicular and the top was only made of wood coated with copper. It was a great shock to me as I had quite believed it to be made of some beautiful stone.
I remember nothing about Queen Victoria’s accession  though I think I must have been at Spithead at the time.
In 1837 I was transferred from the “Hercules” to the “Crocodile” on the North American Station. She was commanded by Captain Polkinghorne who died at Barbados in January 1838. His place was temporarily occupied by Commander W.W.P.Johnson, and a very good man he was. We moved about to different places on the Spanish Main and I just recollect one very pleasant day ashore with the Captain and Lieut. Seymour (afterwards an Admiral). We slept at a villa four miles inland from Santa Marta, in Spanish hammocks. I got a shot at a wild cat but didn’t hit it. We all bathed in the river, and Captain Johnson shaved there having his soap in a calabash beside him. The river was shallow and I walked up and down in the water firing at birds with my little pea-rifle.
After several months the ship was taken command of by Captain Alexander Milne and we spent a summer off the coast of Newfoundland where we passed our time very pleasantly in shooting and fishing.
At Bermuda I passed my examination for Mate. My passing Captains being Captain Polkinghorne, Lord Clarence Paget, and Captain Carter, and then I became an acting Mate. The “Crocodile” was employed in most parts of the West Indies and North America, including Quebec, where a seaman who was sentenced to be hanged for stabbing a Sergeant of Marines, was executed. He was the only man I have ever seen executed on board ship.
In 1838(?) while in this ship off the South coast of Cuba, we chased and captured a slaver, the “Mercedita”, on her way to the West Coast of Africa to embark slaves. I was one of the prize crew of twelve which was put on board to convey her and her crew of seventeen to Havanna, where she was condemned by the Prize Court as a lawful capture. The Court consisted of three men, one an Englishman, the father of Sir Charles Kennedy (now of Exmouth) and we got prize-money; my share was only about £6 or £7.
In the latter end of 1841 I was appointed to the “Excellent” and came home to Portsmouth in the “Ring Dove”, Captain the Hon. ….. Stuart. I then joined the Excellent and R.N. College, and remained there until the beginning of 1843. On passing out, I got 2nd class Certificates in Mathematics, but 1st class in Steam Machinery and Practical Observations. My competitors for the Lieutenant’s commission were Montague Burrows and Cooper-Key. They were both gold medal boys of their year in the old Naval College, so I had no chance, and Cooper-Key got it, and became First Sea Lord before he retired from the Navy. Montague Burrows retired as a commander from the Navy, studied at Oxford, and remained there many years as professor of modern history. They were very able men, both of them.
While in the Excellent I completed my examination for Lieutenant which always had to be done when in England, and not when serving abroad.
In the spring of 1843 I was appointed to the “Gorgon”, a paddle steamer commanded by Captain Charles Hotham, and we were sent to the Brazilian Station. Very shortly after our leaving England, in February, my Father died in Dundalk, but I did not hear of it till we were in Brazil, some months afterwards. My Mother then left Dundalk and went to 2 Gardiners Place, Dublin. Three of my sisters were already married, Marion Dix, Louisa Tipping, and Caroline Paget.
In the “Gorgon” I was called a Sub Lieutenant, the word Mate being no longer used. In 1844 the “Gorgon” was employed chiefly in the River Plate. On the 10th May 1844, when at anchor off Montevideo, she was blown ashore, high up on the beach, during a violent “pampero”, and there she remained until Oct 13th, when she was floated off by the skill of Captain Hotham, and the exertions of her own and other ships’ crews. Vide “The Recovery of the Gorgon” by Lieut. Cooper-Key, who was one of her junior lieutenants.
In 1845, Captain Hotham presented me with a commission as an Acting Lieutenant, which was placed at his disposal by Commodore Purvis. I was appointed to the “Frolic”, Captain Cospatrick Baily Hamilton, a Scotchman. The Frolic was a 16-gun (sailing) Brig. I sailed in her from the River Plate, round Cape Horn to the Pacific Station. We were sent to the North and spent more than a year in the Gulf of California. Our most interesting employments were smuggling off gold and silver, and deer shooting.
The Frolic returned to England and paid off in June 1847. When passing homeward through the Straights of Magellan, we found that an English Merchant sailing Brig had burnt and sunk in the harbour of Port Famine. There we were employed for about three weeks in raising the vessel out of the anchorage, placing her on the beach, and recovering some specie from her to the value of some £8,000 or £9,000. Her crew had disappeared long before, but I believe only two had been lost.After some months at home with my Mother in Dublin, I went to study at the R.N. College on half-pay, and in the early spring of 1848 my friend Captain William Smyth, an Arctic officer and First Lieut. in Back’s Voyage of 1846) recommended me to Captain Sir James Ross, and I was appointed as Second Lieutenant of his ship the “Enterprise.” She was a sailing ship of 470 tons, and with no auxiliary steam power, a crew of 70 men, three lieutenants, Robert McClure was her 1st Lieut, I the second, and Willie Browne (who sketched beautifully) the third.
We sailed in the latter end of May from Woolwich, and on Sept 2nd reached Port Leopold (so called by Parry after the King of the Belgians) and were frozen up and spent the winter there. I accompanied Sir James Ross on his sledge journey of forty days, the longest which had then been made. We started on May 15th 1849 which was then considered a sufficiently early date. Sir James Ross was a short, stout, square-built man, an able navigator and scientific man, he had been further north and further south than any other man, and had discovered the Magnetic Pole. At this time he was about 49 years of age I think. He was a personal friend of Sir John Franklin’s and a nephew of Sir John Ross.
In the latter end of September we left Port Leopold, and returned to England without having found any trace of Franklin’s missing Expedition. We had no fun in this Expedition, Sir James Ross was too scientific. There was scurvy on board when we reached England.
After leaving the Enterprise I enjoyed myself ashore until the spring of 1850, when I was appointed as First Lieut. to the “Assistance,” Captain Erasmus Ommanney, for more Arctic service. There was a remarkable difference between this ship and the “Enterprise”. The Assistance was perfectly well-ventilated, dry and comfortable. This was due to Sir Horatio Austin, the Commodore who commanded this expedition of five ships – Resolute, Assistance, Pioneer, Intrepid and North Star, a depot ship. Traces of Franklin’s party having spent a winter at Beechey Island were discovered, three graves and piles of tins (for tinned meat etc.)
Sledging parties were extended in April 1851 to eighty days. Little Cheyne was in the Resolute. This was the liveliest expedition, balls, masquerades, plays, Penny Readings, School for the men in the evenings etc. Clements Markham was a midshipman in the Assistance, James Donnet was in it too.
[This fragment of autobiography, which ends here, would no doubt have been accessible to Clements Markham for his “Life of Sir Leopold McClintock” (London 1909).]
After Henry McClintock’ s death, 27 Feb 1843, his widow Bessy bravely kept up spasmodic journal entries, as she lived in what must have been straitened circumstances in Dublin, till the end of 1848. She records a difficult visit home from her eldest child, Louis, in
January 1844: “… my son Louis returned from Demerara in bad health, which greatly grieved me as it added so much to my burden & I could in no way assist him (except to give him food & lodgings) – he had been 14 years in Demerara & his consititution much impaired – he caught cold soon after his arrival & kept his bed for a fortnight with rheumatic inflammatory gout, he remained till the November following with me, when a subscription was raised in the family of about £30 and he was fitted out & sent to Trinidad, where he said he could get plenty of places as a sugar boiler or manager of sugar canes & this climate was much too cold for him, his habits being so different from ours – I was rejoiced when he was gone.
[Nothing further is known of poor Louis’ s life.]
1845 … I had a most alarming account of my dear son in law, Paget’ s health, which threatened his life, cough & symptoms of decline .. in April Alfred [now almost a fully trained doctor] went to see him & took Charley at the same time to place him at Christ Hospital School (where I got an appointment for him thro’ a friend of Lady Bellingham’ s, Colonel Angerstein) – Alfred found poor Paget in the last stage of decline & worn to a shadow but patient & resigned & full of faith in his Saviour’ s atonement … he was indeed a triumphal evidence of the Grace of God which had so tried & so supported him – Caroline was in deep affliction but supporting herself for his sake – after Alfred had placed Charley in school he stopped with poor Paget for 3 weeks & then took his last leave of him (being obliged to come back to his hospital) – poor Paget … died, fully in his senses & in peace & hope, with his head on his wife’ s arm – she bore the blow firmly at first, Rosa being with her was a great comfort to her … poor Caroline lay in in September of her third boy who is called Edward … she tried to nurse him but grew too ill & got a wet nurse for the babe & in November was so ill we all feared decline had set in …
[Ed: Caroline, however, recovered in the end and later remarried, Colonel John Ballard Gardiner, and lived many years with him in Bournemouth. Leopold and his wife Annette (born Dunlop) saw a good deal of her when serving and living in Portsmouth in the 1870s.]
All this time Bessy was supported by regular letters from Leopold, who eventually got home in June 1847, and while at the R.N College was back and forth to Dublin frequently, bringing Charley to and from school and attending his sister Florence’ s wedding, to G. Alloway. Various letters have survived to and from several of his sisters, showing clearly that they never lost touch with each other, in spite of his long absences and uncertain mails, with affection and ready assistance between them all. Bessy (Elizabeth Melesina McClintock, born Fleury) died 29 January 1853, and is buried in Dublin.]
One of Leopold’ s younger brothers was Alfred, MD, LLD, 1821-1881, distinguished physician and Master of the Rotunda Hospital in Dublin. He married Fanny Cuppidge and one of their daughters, Edith Wilson, and her doctor husband, took care of Leopold’ s younger daughter, Bessy, when she was sent to South Africa in 1905 in the hope of a cure from tuberculosis. Her illness may well have interrupted the dictation of her Father’ s autobiography. There was also Ernest, 1829-1900, who went to South Africa with his family, and died there. Leopold gave hospitality and financial help to all his siblings and their children, many of whom turned up in London at the McClintock home, 16 Queensberry Place, Kensington. Up to his 80th year, Leopold would often make the journey to Ireland for family funerals.
Although he did not become a father till the age of 52, Leopold was an energetic and involved parent to his five children – Harry, 1871-1959; Annie 1872-1957 who married Sir Bernard Greenwell, John, Vice-Admiral, 1874-1929, Robert 1876-1968 – and all these last three have many descendants – and the beloved youngest child, Elizabeth (Bessy)1882-1913, who finally succumbed to tuberculosis at the age of 30.
For a detailed account of the domestic life of Leopold McClintock after his marriage, we have the diaries of his sister-in-law, Harriet Dunlop, who made her home with Leopold and Annette from the 1870s. They are published as “The Diaries of Harriet Dunlop, 1854-1914” edited by Christina Casement, Alauda Books, Dene Cottage, West Harting, Petersfield, Hampshire, GU31 5PA, ISBN 978-0-9555961-0-0 at £8.99.
See also ‘Famous Arctic Explorers from Dundalk: Sir Leopold McClintock’, by Garret Magowan (August 5th, 1967).
 William Charles Helden Foster McClintock (1805-1890). His postal address was Reliance, Essequibo, Demerara, British Guinea. According to The Guyana/British Genealogical Society, Reliance was a sugar plantation situated at Canje Creek and owned by Sir Hugh Barkly, a member of a slaving family and Governor and Commander-in-Chief of British Guinea (in 1853 of Jamaica).
 My father recorded the ozone references in McClintock’s journal as pages:
60 The pendulum
61 24th October, 1857.
71 Freeze salt water.
91 Recordings during storm.
On the back of this Dad made contact with Dr Neil Harris , Head of the European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit at the University of Cambridge. He, in turn, forwarded some information about the ozone measurements that came from Bob Headland [R. K. Headland], Senior Associate, Scott Polar Research Institute, also at Cambridge. As Dr Harris explained:
“Bob mentions that there are problems associated with understanding how these ozone measurements compare with current day ones. There has been a lot of work on similar measurements in Europe from mid-1800s as collectively they are a potentially unique record of the atmosphere at that time. In practice they indicate that ozone levels at the Earth’s surface were about half their current value, but that has to be taken with a pinch of salt. I do not think that these particular measurements have been examined in detail.”
BOB HEADLAND ON THE OZONE
Early ideas of ozone developed in the first part of the 1800s when there were searches, often successful, for various new elements. Ozone was a mystery but known by its smell during lightening discharge and variously thought to be a phosphorous derivative, a new elemental gas, or something electrostatic.
Some of its chemistry was discovered, especially the reaction with potassium iodide which was converted by it into potassium hydroxide and elemental iodine, although both in very small concentrations. The extremely sensitive test for iodine, formation of a blue colour with starch, led to a method of detecting and determining ozone concentrations. This used ‘ozone papers’, merely small pieces of paper (visiting card size), impregnated with potassium iodide and starch. They were dampened if necessary (not necessary in very humid circumstances – such as thunder storms) and exposed to the atmosphere for a standardised period. If there was any amount of ozone in the atmosphere they turned blue to some extent and were compared with a standard colour scale of ten shades. Thus ozone concentration could be measured before anyone had an idea of what it was.
The alleged ‘health-giving’ qualities of ozone caused public interest in these observations. Thus to get some healthy ozone in ones lungs was a reason for going to the sea-side. Some resorts measured and reported it which still persists in common parlance.
Electrostatic laboratories and, later, power houses with dynamos, and later still electric motors, all had some ozonizing effect on the atmosphere in their immediate vicinity – ozone formation by electrical discharge. This led to commercial ozonizers which mainly used silent (non sparking) apparatus. By about 1860 the formula of ozone was determined and more uses for it were found.
During the exploration of the Northwest Passage various meteorological observations were conducted aboard Royal Naval ships and ozone papers were amongst these. Others included atmospheric electricity measured by the time it took an electroscope to discharge under standard conditions, and various actinometers for different spectra of light. Some observations remain very valuable (temperatures for instance) but others are now scientifically of lesser importance.
Such determinations had to be distant from the various other activities aboard a ship: smoke, steam, fumes, disturbance, etc. Thus up the mast was a useful place for sampling which might be for several hours.’
 “VICE-ADMIRAL SIR LEOPOLD M‘CLINTOCK. The Army and Navy Gazette announces that Vice- Admiral Sir Leopold M’Clintock has been appointed Elder Brother of the Trinity House, in the room of the late Admiral Sir Richard Collinson. Trinity House is a corporation intrusted with the regulation and management of the lighthouses and buoys of the shores and rivers of England, having general supervision over the Scotch Commissioners of Northern Lights and the Irish Ballast Board. The present Master of Trinity House is Vice-Admiral his Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh.” Dublin Daily Express – Monday 25 February 1884
 There is some useful background on the Delap/Dunlop family here. Family archives include a letter from Robert Delap to his father Samuel in Rathmelton in 1767, as well as a ‘3,000-word homily against doctors and the perils of fleshpot London, where he was about to go which he received while at Trinity College in 1775 from his Jamaica-based uncle Francis Delap.
 An earlier note I had says he received £1,933 but it seems this was shared with a Mr Lee (who received £1012) and that this was for their combined loss of 95 slaves.
 Two members of the banking La Touche family received £6,865 between them, while Howe Peter Browne, 2nd Marquess of Sligo, received £5,425. By far the largest beneficiary was Charles McGarel of Larne, County Antrim whose claim for 2,777 slaves on twelve different plantations yielded him a payment of £135,076. In total, £20 million was paid out by the Slave Compensation Act. (To explore the documentation relating to Ireland, see here.
 MARRIAGE OF LORD O’NEILLS DAUGHTER INTERESTING EVENT AT SHANE’S CASTLE. A PICTURESQUE CEREMONY. The Honourable Rose O’Neill, whose marriage with Captain John William Leopold McClintock, C.B., D.S.O., R.N., was solemnised on 15th inst., in Drummaul Church, Randalstown, is the first Miss O’Neill to be married from Shane’s Castle for two hundred years. Long before the bridal party was due, the church was crowded. All the country side were there, as well those from the immediate district, filling the cool dim seats, and struggling to get close to the cords which divided them from the guests who were there by special invitation. A large party had been asked to the wedding, but crowds came uninvited —crowds that filled the church, that swelled out into the porch and the grounds, and the road beyond. It was scarcely to be wondered at that this wedding should arouse such eager interest. It was in every way an event in the history of the district. The bride, who is the second daughter of Lord and Lady O’Neill, belongs to a family who are descendants of a line of kings in Ireland, and whose name is intimately associated with every remarkable event that has occurred in Ulster for many centuries. So numerous have been their valiant deeds that a mere outline of them would fill a volume. But the Red Hand of Ulster, the historic symbol of our province, ever keeps fresh in our memories the self-sacrifice and courage of the O Neill, who founded the race and supplied Ulster with kings for centuries. The present Lord Neill represented Antrim in Parliament for many years, and now his son, Major the Honourable Hugh O’Neill, is the member for Mid-Antrim. During the war, the bride rendered invaluable service in the trade division at the Admiralty, in a war hospital. The bridegroom, who is a son of the late Admiral Sir Leopold McClintock, K.C.B., the famous Arctic explorer, has won honours for his conspicuous bravery and gallant deeds in the recent terrible conflict. The crowd in the church waited in eager anticipation of a wedding of far more than ordinary interest. The bridegroom and the best man, Major H. McClintock, the bridegroom’s brother, arrived early, the officiating clergymen —the Archbishop of Dublin (Most Rev. Dr. D’Arcy), the Dean of Armagh (Very Rev. F. G. Le P McClintock, B.D.), Canon Chichester, and the Rev. T. J. Forsythe, B.A.—took up their positions. The choir of St. Anne’s Cathedral, with the organist. Mr. C. J. Brennan. F.R.C.A.. Mus. Bac., and the Rev. G. C. Olden, M.A., Minor Canon, had come specially from Belfast for the occasion, assembled at the door of the church, and an intense stillness settled down on the congregation. The dreamy notes of the organ floated through the silence. Then there was the usual sudden stir as the bride appeared and walked slowly up the aisle on the arm of her brother, Major the Honourable Hugh O’Neill, M.P., who gave her away, her father being prevented from appearing at the church. She was preceded by some of the clergy and the slow going deliberate choristers, their heads bent over their hymnbooks, their voices rising pure and clear. Ballymena Observer – Friday 30 January 1920]
 Clifton Society, 6 March 1913, p. 12.
 UK, Royal Naval Officers’ Service Records Index, 1756-1931.
 To be Deputy Assistant-Commissaries- General, Commissaries Clerks – Theodore Ernest McClintock (Dublin Evening Mail – Monday 04 February 1850)
Commissariat Department—To be To be Assistant-Commissaries-General : — Deputy-Assistant-Commissary-Generals John Moiro McLean Sutherland, vice Kean Osborn, deceased; Theodore Ernest McClintock , vice Widdrington Tinling , deceased ; Alexander Walter Turner , vice George Shepbeard , placed upon retired pay (The Scotsman – Thursday 20 December 1860)
Assistant-Commissary-General T. E. M’Clintock to the staff-paymaster. (Gravesend Reporter, North Kent and South Essex Advertiser – Saturday 2 October 1869)
WAR OFFICE, PALL MALL, 2ND April, 1878. ARMY PAY DEPARTMENT. To be Staff Paymasters from 1st April, 1878. Paymaster Theodore Ernest McClintock, from the Pay Sub-Department. (Naval & Military Gazette and Weekly Chronicle of the United Service, 3 April 1878)
Staff Paymaster and Honorary Major Theodore Ernest McClintock retires on retired pay, with the honorary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. (Naval & Military Gazette and Weekly Chronicle of the United Service, 24 August 1881)
William Maroni, in succession to T. E. McClintock, retired : 24th August, 1881. (Naval & Military Gazette and Weekly Chronicle of the United Service – 2 November 1881)
Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore E. McClintock, late Staff Paymaster, Army Pay Department, has been permitted to commute his retired pay: 7th November, 1882. (Naval & Military Gazette and Weekly Chronicle of the United Service – 6 December 1882)
 BIRTHS. M’Clintock—Aug. 10, at The Castle, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, the wife of T. Ernest M’Clintock, Esq., Assistant-Commissary-General, of a son. Dublin Evening Mail, 4 October 1864.
 By his wife Lorraine Miller, Ronald Victor McClintock had a son Donald McClintock and two daughters, Gayle and Karen; this connection came via Gayle (who married Willem F Eckhardt and has three daughters, Liesa, Kirsty and Claie). I think this is a different family to the R.V. McClintock mentioned as the father of the bride here: GLENCRAIG WEDDING Barr—M‘Clintock The wedding took place at Glencraig Church, Craigavad, of Mr. Jaye Barr, younger son of the late Mr.and Mrs. Alexander Barr, Chichester Avenue, Belfast, and Miss Elizabeth Margaret M’Clintock, eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. R. V. M’Clintock, Bangor Street, Newtownards. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. R. J. Chisholm, M.A., rector of St. Mark’s, Newtownards, and Mr. W. F. M’Bratney was at the organ. The soloist was Miss Rhona E. M’Clintock. The bride was In a trained gown of ivory Chantilly lace, with veil of French net mounted on orange blossom, and she carried a bouquet of pink carnations and lily of the valley. The bridesmaid, Miss Mary M’Clintock. and child attendant. Miss Dorothy M’Clintock—sisters of the bride —wore gowns of turquoise poult. Mr. Lex Barr. M.Sc., F. S.S., attended his brother as best man. Subsequently a reception was held at the Old Inn, Crawfordsburn. (Belfast News-Letter, 6 April 1954)
 Left June 1881; Boarder Day. Form II-VI. Sen. Prefect. Sgt. C.C. XI. XV. Ath VL ’81. Mat ’81; successful in Athletics; in ’82 threw Cricket Ball 130 yards at Port Elizabeth.
 Register of St. Andrew’s College Grahamstown Fourth Edition 1855 – 1959.
 Thanks to Peter McGoldrick and Jim Herlihy.
 Many of the other siblings married and had children, as did James’s children, all of which is recorded in Paul Tipping’s 2005 book “The Tippings of Canterbury – The Story of Two Anglo-Irish families” (ISBN 0–473–1 0388–5).
 Thanks to Ronan Connolly whose grandmother Frances Richardson may be Rosa and Benjamin’s great-granddaughter.
 Records of relevance to George Alloway.
Report of the smallpox commissioners, appointed by government: with an appendix, Calcutta, 1st July 1850 To Dr. George H. Alloway, M. R. C. S.
— The Smallpox Committee desire me to apply to you, with a request that you will obligingly favour them with answers to the following questions : —
1. In what way are the provisions of the Vaccine Extension Act of 1840 carried out in Ireland, and more especially in Dublin?
2. What class of professional men are engaged or contracted with for vaccinating the poor?
3. What remuneration is given for such cases?
4. How are the accuracy of their Returns, and the success or failure of their operations ascertained?
5. Is Vaccination popular in Ireland? To what extent is it practised in Dublin?
Your early reply will very much oblige the Committee.
Your most obedient Servant,
D. STEWART, M. D., Off. Secy, to the Committee. Calcutta,
May. 1850. Dr. Alloway’s Reply to the above. Calcutta.
Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to reply to the questions submitted to me through you, by the Smallpox Committee.
1. The Provisions of the vaccine Extension Act” of 1840 are carried out in Ireland by the different “Boards of Poor Law Guardians” in their respective districts, in the following manner. In some districts once in 12 months, and in others once in every 6 months, candidates possessing the necessary qualifications are publicly requested to send in tenders for contracts for the ensuing period, at so much for each successful case. It does not follow that the lowest offer is accepted; the Board have the power of taking into consideration other reasons for determining their choice. In Dublin the same course is pursued, except that each Poor House district is subdivided; the contracts are frequently given to a Hospital when centrally situated, and where there is none such, to some resident practitioner approved of by the
2. None but a properly educated and (where possible) experienced Physician or Surgeon is now selected; many cases of Vaccination are imperfect, which might be certified as successful by an inexperienced person, and which would be no protection against Smallpox, and would only tend to bring Vaccination into disrepute with the lower orders of the people. This was found to be the case when the Act was first put in force in the country parts of Ireland; the Boards of Guardians through mistaken economy giving the contracts to Apothecaries and their assistants, who considered it quite sufficient to per- form the operation; but not carrying out the spirit of the Act, they were enabled to take the contracts at a low rate.
3. The remuneration in Ireland was at first about the same as the average in England, namely, 1^. ^d. for each successful case, but for the reason mentioned in the last paragraph it was found needful not to take the lowest tender in all cases, as it was a matter of great consequence in Ireland, to take every possible step to inspire the lower order of people with confidence in Vaccination, and to remove their strong prejudices in favour of Inoculation, and this could not be more effectually done than by taking great care to ensure success for the first few years.
The contracts afterwards approved of, were generally at 2^., or in some remote places 2.?. 6c/. for each successful operation.
4. The accuracy of the Returns must, of course, depend greatly on the integrity of the Vaccinator; this was one reason why it was found inexpedient in Ireland always to take the lowest offer.
No cases were returned unless those certified as successful. If there was any cause apparent Avhy success should not follow the operation of Vaccination (such as disease of the skin, &c.) it was removed before another attempt was made ; if there was no apparent cause, it was repeated with additional precautions to ensure the absorption of the Vaccine lymph; but in no case was there any Return of failures enjoined.
Each Vaccinator was furnished with a book of Certificates in the form of a Bank Cheque Book. On the success of each case being ascertained one of these Certificates was filled up by him and delivered to the parents of the child; another book was also kept by him in which each Case was noted ; when this book was filled, it was deposited with the Secretary of the Board of Guardians. The people were enjoined to preserve these Certificates, and it was held out to them that future advantages would result to the possessors of them in entering Government employ, and in other ways ; and latterly emigrants were refused a free pass- age unless they could produce evidence of the younger members of the family having been vaccinated. In England this was not so necessary where there was little or no prejudice in favour of Inoculation ; but in Ireland where Inoculation was practised to a large extent in the agricultural districts, and where Small- pox annually raged, it was at first necessary to hold out some prospect of future benefit to induce them to come forward willingly.
5. Vaccination was not at all popular in Ireland at first; we were obliged to bring many to punishment before the itinerant Inoculators were suppressed ; and even in many cases to extend the punishment to the parents which in Ireland seemed to have more effect. Vaccination is now general, — being the rule, — and Inoculation the rare exception: in Dublin for many years Vaccination has been general. I do not believe that any case of Inoculation ever occurs there now.
I am, dear Sir,
Your obedient Servant,
(Signed) G. H. ALLOWAY.
With thanks to Douglas Hull.
 COTTON-GROWING ON THE CORAL SEA, Age (Melbourne, Victoria), Monday 12 July 1858, page 5
Dear Sir, —
Having read your communication to the Melbourne Age of the 23rd ult., and having taken great interest in the question of cotton growing in Australia, I am tempted to address you on the subject and to give you the history of a ‘similar application of mine to the Secretary for the Colonies, with a similar result.
Some years ago, when on medical service in India, I was obliged to seek a colder climate for a short time, to rest and recruit my health, and having obtained ten months’ leave, I spent the time in exploring the coasts of Australia and visiting Java and other places in the Indian Seas. I then was struck with the natural advantages presented by some of the islands on the N.E. coast, inside the Barrier reef, for the growth of cotton, the increased production of which is every day becoming of such vital importance to England.
Some of these islands are low and sandy, well suited for the growth of Sea Island cotton ; others are hilly, and of sufficient elevation to produce coffee, spice, &c. I found the nutmeg growing on some of them, and bearing good fruit.
Service prevented me from taking any further step in this matter, but nothing was forgotten.
During the Crimean war I had frequently talked over the matter with a brother officer of mine, and we came to tho conclusion — along with the conclusion of the war— to see what we could do in the way of getting a grant of the islands, or a long lease. My friend was most willing to leave the service, and being a man, not only of scientific knowledge, but also of great energy and practical experience as an officer in the Royal Engineers, we thought the proposal would be favorably received. I called myself on Mr Labouchero, and had a long interview with him, and after explaining all, I asked him, would the Government give us a grant or long lease of the places named, and pointing out amongst other advantages, that of having a station in a part where many wrecks took place every year.
He listened very attentively, but his answer was to the effect that the application must come through the Governor of New South Wales. On which I pressed him as to what might be the result in case all the red tape routine had been attended to and gone through.
Alas ! It was to the same effect as your own — ‘The Government were not prepared, &o.’
The fact is, every extension of territory gives them more work, and no more pay, and, therefore, the Colonial Office is not in favor of such enterprise. It has become a settled law in England that everything of commercial enterprise must be accomplished in spite of the Government, and not by its aid or countenance. Our project, therefore, fell to tho ground, and my friend is still in the Royal Engineers and on his way to India, where I hope he will compare his knowledge of cotton in the West Indies — where he was stationed — and Georgia, with that of East India.
I did not go in close or land on the north shore, but from what I did see and have heard, I should say the north shore of Australia would be favorably situated for the growth of cotton. The latitude does not quite correspond to that of Georgia, where the Sea Island cotton grows. Georgia is in 30 ° N. lat , Victoria R. in about 15 0 S. lat. About 20 ° S. lat. is the same as 30 ° N. lat., but if the soil is of the same sandy quality, the difference is not very great.
I have heard that a sample of very good cotton was sent to England from Moreton Bay, and approved of; but I have not been able to ascertain whether it! was long stapled or short stapled. Any place that will grow long stapled Sea Island is worth a dozen gold mines.
One advantage of your locality over mine is, that it is so close to Malay labor, which you can have cheap and plenty; and, if well treated, there are no better men. We had intended getting Coolies from the East Indies, but the Malays are closer and not be troublesome, and,- I think, bettor workmen. I have no doubt that one day cotton will form a large proportion of the exports of Australia, — in fact, equal to what wool is now, but which, I fear, is not to be much longer, unless a change of opinion may soon prevail amongst the powers that be.
Pray excuse this letter. It was some relief to me to write it, and also to find that there is some enterprise left ia Australia.
I am, dear Sir, Yours faithfully,
GEORGE H. ALLOWAY,
Late Staff Surgeon. Australian Club
Sydney, July 2, 1858.
THE FIJI EXPERIMENT, The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW) Saturday 15 January 1881 p 5
The news which arrived by the Hydaspes’e Mail yesterday of the death of Mr. G. H. Alloway will be a source of regret to his many friends in Sydney where he practised with acceptance as a surgeon for’ nearly 23 years. He was at one time President Of the Medical Board for Visiting Asylums. In 1867 he visited Europe for nearly three years, and on his return embarked in an unprofitable cotton growing venture in Fiji, after which he returned to practice, but was obliged to seek rest for a time. A severe attack of paralysis caused his retirement to England, where he lingered in until the time of his death. Mr. Alloway has left widow and a daughter, who is in England.
 See Art of the Free State: A Burns Library Exhibition, Boston College; online.